Itch - Wikipedia

Jun 23, Author: David F Butler, MD; Chief Editor: New therapies are based on Psoriasis Lipid in the understanding of the mechanisms that cause pruritus. However, without eradication of the underlying systemic disease, treatment is often palliative at best and can be frustrating for both the patient and physician.

Certain therapies, such as antihistamines and emollients, offer marginal benefit. Nevertheless, they should be tried Bilirubin Pruritus of their low cost and potential for providing relief. Bilirubin Pruritus antihistamines may be effective in patients with nocturnal pruritus.

Although antihistamines are partially effective in treating pruritus due to systemic disease, the effect is usually marginal and the relief is unsatisfactory. Doxepin, a tricyclic antidepressant TCA with antihistaminic properties, at dosages of mg at bedtime may be quite helpful. Mirtazapine at mg at bedtime has also been used to treat pruritus. Gabapentin taken orally has demonstrated effectiveness in neurogenic pruritus and more recently has demonstrated effectiveness in uremic, hematologic, and idiopathic pruritus.

Aprepitant, an anti-nausea neurokinin receptor 1 antagonist, has been showed to be highly effective in reducing pruritus in a group of patients with various skin disorders. Patients with atopic dermatitis and prurigo nodularis seemed to Bilirubin Pruritus best.

Physical therapy with UV-B therapy is a treatment of choice. Patients have reported months of remission after treatments. UV-B reduces cutaneous phosphorus, decreases the number of dermal mast cells, and reduces epidermal vitamin A levels.

However, some concern has been expressed that broad-band UV-B treatment might possibly increase the risk of nonmelanoma skin cancer. Narrow-band U-VB seems less likely to do so. One study from Scotland failed to demonstrate an increased risk of skin cancer in patients receiving narrow-band UV-B therapy.

Bilirubin Pruritus application of a eutectic mixture of local anesthetics eg, EMLA cream before capsaicin treatment may reduce the burning sensation associated with capsaicin. Tacrolimus is a calcineurin inhibitor, it decreases the differentiation of type 1 helper T lymphocytes, and it reduces Bilirubin Pruritus production of interleukin 2.

Topical gamma linolenic acid Bilirubin Pruritus promising. Systemic therapy includes UV-B and activated charcoal, which are first-line treatments, along with ensuring effective dialysis. Oral activated charcoal is inexpensive, effective, and well tolerated; therefore, it is considered a reasonable Bilirubin Pruritus when UV therapy has failed. Activated charcoal is thought to prevent the absorption of an unknown pruritogen. Efficient dialysis is helpful.

Pruritus Bilirubin Pruritus to Bilirubin Pruritus severe with insufficient dialysis. Thalidomide has been reported as effective but should be used with caution because of its adverse-effect profile. Bilirubin Pruritus opioid antagonists, studies of oral naltrexone have shown mixed results, with Bilirubin Pruritus only in a small subset of patients. Erythropoietin has been studied, [ 3536 ] and one double-blinded, placebo-controlled study showed marked benefit in patients receiving small doses for up to 6 months.

However, this effect could not be confirmed. Other systemic therapies include nicergoline and free fatty acids eg, those in primrose oil ; these have shown positive results in reducing renal pruritus. Gabapentin has been Bilirubin Pruritus to be effective in the treatment of chronic uremic pruritus, but it has been shown to worsen cholestatic pruritus.

A double-blinded controlled study in Iran demonstrated that oral Bilirubin Pruritus sulfate mg daily significantly reduced pruritus in a Bilirubin Pruritus of patients undergoing hemodialysis for renal insufficiency. Cholestyramine is the first-line therapy, followed by rifampin and opioid antagonists. Ondansetron may also be tried. Cholestyramine has only been show effective in a few randomized studies, but this drug is thought to be helpful in relieving Bilirubin Pruritus. Because of its low Bilirubin Pruritus, it should be tried before more expensive treatments are considered.

Rifampin, a hepatic enzyme inducer, is effective for pruritus of cholestasis. Caution should be used in patients with preexisting liver disease because of possible hepatotoxicity. Opioid antagonists, including Medikamente, die während Exazerbation der Psoriasis, may relieve pruritus, but intravenous administration limits its use outside the hospital setting. Oral naltrexone is also effective.

These drugs should not be used in patients in need of palliative opioid treatment. Butorphanol, which antagonizes the mu receptor but agonizes the kappa receptor, has Bilirubin Pruritus shown to be effective Bilirubin Pruritus suppressing cholestatic pruritus. Ursodeoxycholic acid and S-adenosyl-L-methionine have both been reported to decrease pruritus in women with cholestasis of pregnancy, but ursodeoxycholic acid may improve fetal outcomes and biochemical serum markers.

Extracorporeal albumin dialysis may be considered when severe pruritus is refractory to other therapies. Ondansetron has limited effectiveness and, because it relieves opioid-induced pruritus, it appears to affect opioid pathways. Other therapies that may be effective are thalidomide, infused propofol, serotonin-selective reuptake inhibitors, UV-B, phenobarbital, dronabinol, and bright-light Bilirubin Pruritus indirectly reflected toward the eyes.

Iron deficiency responds to treatment with iron, which should be continued until ferritin levels are normalized. Correction of iron deficiency in persons with polycythemia vera may decrease the pruritus but worsen the polycythemia vera. Patients with pruritus due Bilirubin Pruritus polycythemia vera may benefit from aspirin, which is considered the first-line therapy.

Cimetidine, danazol, cholestyramine, UV-B light therapy, and psoralen with UV-A therapy have all been shown Bilirubin Pruritus help. Interferon-alfa may provide relief, but its adverse effects may decrease compliance. One patient with severe pruritus due to Hodgkin disease Bilirubin Pruritus dramatically to thalidomide at mg by mouth at night. The pruritus of hypothyroidism is secondary to Bilirubin Pruritus and should be treated with emollients and thyroid hormone replacement.

Pruritus secondary to hyperthyroidism improves with the Bilirubin Pruritus of thyroid function. Bilirubin Pruritus cannabinoid agonist creams have been shown to relieve pruritus associated with certain chronic dermatoses. Treating the underlying disorder is the mainstay of therapy for controlling pruritus. Corticosteroids with palliative chemotherapy in late-stage Hodgkin disease often provide relief. Nonspecific treatments for Bilirubin Pruritus pruritus, such as UV-B light therapy, cholestyramine, naloxone, and activated charcoal, should be considered.

Paroxetine relieves itch in patients with advanced cancer; however, the effect usually here only weeks. Successful transplantation is the only definitive treatment for renal pruritus.

When pruritus is associated with obstructive malignancy Bilirubin Pruritus the biliary tract or other obstructive causes eg, primary sclerosing cholangitisplacing a stent to relieve the obstruction also treats the pruritus. Liver transplantation may be considered in patients who have pruritus associated with nonmalignant cholestasis that does not respond to medical therapy.

Cho YL, Bilirubin Pruritus HN, Huang TP, Tarng DC. J Am Acad Dermatol. Pruritus in Systemic Diseases: A Review of Etiological Factors and New Treatment Modalities. Cowden JM, Zhang M, Dunford PJ, Thurmond RL. The histamine H4 receptor mediates inflammation and pruritus in Th2-dependent dermal Bilirubin Pruritus. Chou FF, Ho JC, Huang SC, Sheen-Chen SM.

A study on pruritus after parathyroidectomy for secondary hyperparathyroidism. J Am Coll Surg. Hampers CL, Katz AI, Wilson RE, Merrill JP. Disappearance of "uremic" itching after subtotal parathyroidectomy. N Engl J Med. Massry SG, Popovtzer Bilirubin Pruritus, Coburn Bilirubin Pruritus, Makoff DL, Maxwell MH, Kleeman CR. Intractable pruritus as a manifestation of secondary hyperparathyroidism in uremia. Disappearance of itching after subtotal parathyroidectomy.

Graf H, Bilirubin Pruritus J, Stummvoll HK, Wolf A. Disappearance of uraemic pruritus after lowering dialysate magnesium concentration. Kyriazis J, Glotsos J. Zucker I, Yosipovitch G, David M, Gafter U, Boner G.

Prevalence and characterization of uremic pruritus in patients undergoing hemodialysis: Kumagai H, Ebata T, Takamori K, Muramatsu T, Nakamoto H, Suzuki H. Effect of a novel kappa-receptor agonist, nalfurafine hydrochloride, on severe itch in Bilirubin Pruritus patients: Lysophosphatidic acid Bilirubin Pruritus a potential mediator of Bilirubin Pruritus pruritus. Diehn F, Tefferi A.

Pruritus in polycythaemia vera: Bilirubin Pruritus N, Haynes K, Propert KJ, Margolis DJ. Five-year malignancy incidence in patients with chronic pruritus: Rowe B, Yosipovitch G. Gutman AB, Kligman AM, Sciacca J, James WD. Hundley JL, Yosipovitch G.

Mirtazapine for reducing nocturnal itch in patients with Behandlung für Psoriasis pruritus: Bilirubin Pruritus MF, Taverna J. Mirtazapine and gabapentin for reducing pruritus in cutaneous T-cell lymphoma.

Gabapentin for Pruritus in Palliative Care. Am J Hosp Palliat Care. Stander S, Siepmann D, Herrgott I, Sunderkotter C, Luger TA. Targeting the neurokinin receptor 1 with aprepitant: Hearn RM, Kerr AC, Rahim KF, Ferguson J, Dawe RS. Incidence of skin cancers in patients Bilirubin Pruritus with narrow-band ultraviolet B phototherapy. Yosipovitch Behandlung Psoriasis Cherkassi von, Maibach HI, Rowbotham MC.

Effect of EMLA pre-treatment on capsaicin-induced burning and hyperalgesia. Kuypers DR, Claes K, Evenepoel P, Maes B, Vanrenterghem Y. A prospective proof of concept study of the efficacy of tacrolimus Bilirubin Pruritus on uraemic pruritus UP in patients on chronic dialysis therapy.

Chen YC, Chiu WT, Wu MS. Therapeutic effect read article topical gamma-linolenic acid on refractory uremic pruritus. Am J Kidney Dis. Boardman LA, Cooper AS, Blais Bilirubin Pruritus, Raker CA. Topical gabapentin in the treatment of localized and generalized vulvodynia. Blachley JD, Blankenship DM, Menter A, Parker TF bei der Behandlung von Psoriasis, Knochel JP.

Gilchrest BA, Rowe JW, Brown RS, Steinman TI, Arndt KA. Ultraviolet phototherapy of uremic pruritus. Long-term results and possible mechanism of action. Giovannetti S, Barsotti G, Cupisti A, Bilirubin Pruritus al. Oral activated charcoal in patients with uremic pruritus. Hiroshige K, Kabashima N, Takasugi M, Kuroiwa A. Optimal dialysis improves uremic pruritus. Pederson JA, Matter BJ, Czerwinski AW, Llach F. Relief of idiopathic generalized pruritus in dialysis patients treated with activated oral charcoal.

Jedras M, Zakrzewska-Pniewska B, Wardyn K, Switalski M. Is pruritus in dialyzed patients related to neuropathy? Pol Arch Med Wewn. Silva SR, Viana Bilirubin Pruritus, Lugon NV, Hoette M, Ruzany F, Lugon JR. Thalidomide for the treatment of uremic pruritus: Legroux-Crespel E, Cledes J, Misery L. A Bilirubin Pruritus study on Bilirubin Pruritus effects of naltrexone and loratadine on uremic pruritus.

Pauli-Magnus C, Mikus G, Alscher DM, et al. Naltrexone does not relieve uremic pruritus: J Am Soc Nephrol. Balaskas EV, Uldall Bilirubin Pruritus. Erythropoietin treatment does not improve uremic pruritus. De Marchi S, Cecchin E, Villalta D, Sepiacci G, Santini G, Bartoli E. Relief of pruritus Bilirubin Pruritus decreases in plasma histamine concentrations during erythropoietin therapy in patients with uremia. Manenti L, Vaglio A, Costantino E, et al. Gabapentin in the treatment Bilirubin Pruritus uremic itch: Dawn AG, Yosipovitch G.

Butorphanol for treatment of intractable pruritus. Najafabadi MM, Faghihi Bilirubin Pruritus, Emami A, et al. Go here sulfate for relief of pruritus in patients on maintenance hemodialysis.

Cynamon HA, Andres JM, Iafrate RP. Rifampin relieves pruritus in children with cholestatic liver disease. Ghent CN, Carruthers SG. Treatment of pruritus in primary biliary cirrhosis with rifampin. Results of a double-blind, crossover, source trial.

Argo Produkte für Psoriasis NV, Alling DW, Talbot TL, et al. Effects of naloxone infusions in patients with the pruritus of cholestasis. A double-blind, randomized, controlled trial. Peer G, Kivity S, Bilirubin Pruritus O, et al. Randomised crossover trial of naltrexone in uraemic pruritus. Terg R, Coronel E, Sorda J, Munoz AE, Findor J. Efficacy and safety of oral naltrexone treatment for pruritus of cholestasis, a crossover, double blind, placebo-controlled study.

Wolfhagen FH, Sternieri E, Hop WC, Vitale G, Bertolotti M, Van Buuren HR. Oral naltrexone treatment for cholestatic pruritus: Bergasa NV, Alling DW, Talbot TL, Wells MC, Jones EA. Oral nalmefene therapy reduces scratching activity due to the pruritus of cholestasis: Palma J, Reyes H, Ribalta J, et al. Ursodeoxycholic acid in the treatment of cholestasis of pregnancy: Roncaglia N, Locatelli A, Arreghini A, et al. A randomised controlled trial of ursodeoxycholic acid and S-adenosyl-l-methionine in the treatment of gestational cholestasis.

Bellmann R, Feistritzer C, Zoller H, et al. Treatment of intractable pruritus in drug induced cholestasis with albumin dialysis: Bellmann R, Graziadei IW, Feistritzer C, et al. Treatment of refractory cholestatic pruritus after liver transplantation with albumin dialysis. Hernandez-Nunez A, Dauden E, Cordoba S, Aragues M, Garcia-Diez A. Water-induced pruritus in haematologically controlled polycythaemia vera: Morison WL, Nesbitt JA 3rd.

Oral psoralen photochemotherapy PUVA for pruritus associated with polycythemia vera and myelofibrosis. Finelli C, Bilirubin Pruritus L, Gamberi Bilirubin Pruritus, Vianelli N, Visani Bilirubin Pruritus, Tura S. Bilirubin Pruritus of intractable pruritus in polycythemia vera with recombinant interferon alfa.

American Medical Association Bilirubin Pruritus, Alpha Omega AlphaAssociation of Military DermatologistsAmerican Academy of DermatologyAmerican Society for Dermatologic SurgeryAmerican Society Bilirubin Pruritus MOHS SurgeryPhi Beta Kappa Disclosure: Alpha Omega Bilirubin PruritusAmerican Academy of Dermatology Bilirubin Pruritus, American Medical AssociationTexas Medical Association Disclosure: Alpha Omega AlphaAmerican Academy of Dermatology Bilirubin Pruritus, Society for Investigative DermatologyAssociation of Professors of DermatologyNorth American Hair Research Society Disclosure: Bilirubin Pruritus Academy of DermatologySociety for Investigative Dermatology Disclosure: Serve d as a director, officer, Bilirubin Pruritus, employee, advisor, consultant or trustee for: American College of Mohs Surgery Disclosure: If you log out, you will be required to enter your username and password next time you visit.

Share Email Print Feedback Close. Pruritus and Systemic Disease. Sections Pruritus and Systemic Disease. Medical Care The treatment for pruritus of systemic disease varies depending on the underlying etiology.

Bilirubin Pruritus Care Successful transplantation is the only definitive treatment for Bilirubin Pruritus pruritus. Consultations Consultation with the Bilirubin Pruritus specialists may be helpful: Always consult a dermatologist to rule out any primary cause of pruritus and to discuss UV-B or psoralen UV-A light therapy when it is considered in the treatment plan.

A gastroenterologist should evaluate any patient with liver or biliary Bilirubin Pruritus disease. These specialists should always be involved in the care of patients with pruritus due to hematologic or malignant causes. Patients Bilirubin Pruritus endocrine pruritus should be evaluated for treatment of their thyroid disease, which often cures their itch. Patients with CRF or chronic liver disease may need to Bilirubin Pruritus evaluated for kidney or liver transplantation, respectively.

A surgeon should always be consulted in cases of malignant cholestasis. Diet A low-protein diet Waschen mit help decrease pruritus in persons with CRF. What would you like to print? Print this section Print the entire contents of.

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Bilirubin Pruritus A Diagnostic Approach to Pruritus - American Family Physician

Часто зуд проявляется приступами. Если зуд держится более 4 недель, очень сильный или вследствие постоянного расчёсы- вания повреждена кожа, необходимо проконсультироваться у Bilirubin Pruritus для исключения серьезного заболевания.

В зависимости от verursacht das Krankheitsbild Psoriasis у Вас жалоб и симптомов необходимо обследование у следующих специалистов:.

В зависимости от данных анамнеза и Вашего состояния возможны следующие диагностические мероприятия:. При подозрении на органическое поражение возможно назначение более специфических методов обследования:.

В начале лечения назначается симптоматическая терапия — для устранения Bilirubin Pruritus и восстановления поврежденной кожи, а также общего улучшения самочувствия пациента.

Основная же терапия Bilirubin Pruritus на устранение основного заболевания, вызвавшего зуд. На сегодняшний день медицина располагает разнообразными средствами и методами лечения. Избегайте расчёсов, даже если это очень нелегкая задача. Расчесывание лишь усугубляет симптоматику и приводит к загрязнению инфицированию мелких ран патогенными бактериями. В результате развивается воспаление. Just click for source постоянном расчёсывании могут возникать узелки или лихении, которые сами становятся источником зуда.

Таким образом замыкается Bilirubin Pruritus круг: Простое охлаждение раздраженных участков или любая деятельность, отвлекающая внимание, помогают смягчить симптомы зуда. Если у Вас Bilirubin Pruritus вошло в привычку расчесывать кожу в Bilirubin Pruritus на раздражение, то врачи советуют просто перенести это действие какой-нибудь предмет, например, почесать подушку, таким образом замкнуть рефлекс на чем-нибудь другом.

Они приводят к нарушению уровня learn more here кожи изменят состав ее микрофлоры, что повышает чувствительность кожи и способствует появлению зуда. Используйте крема, восстанавливающие питательный и жировой баланс кожи.

Если зуд чаще всего появляется Bilirubin Pruritus, то перед сном используйте Bilirubin Pruritus спреи. Если у Вас возможны аллергические реакции, Bilirubin Pruritus старайтесь избегать контакт с аллергенами. Перейти к основному содержимому. Перейти к дополнительному содержимому.

Цурбрюгом Лечение в Германии Опухолевые маркеры по органам Опухолевые маркеры по алфавиту Последняя надежда Виктории Bilirubin Pruritus пациентам Хондросаркома позвоночника Самая большая опухоль в области таза Пациентам Схема приема лекарств Формуляры Медицинская эвакуация Наши врачи. Зуд — Пруритус Зуд лат. О хроническом зуде говорят, если больной страдает характерной симптоматикой более 6 недель. Хронический зуд тяжело поддается лечению и причиняет пациенту телесные и душевные страдания.

Выделяют два вида симптома зуда: Иногда зуд связан с повреждением нервных волокон. Ниже приводится список болезней, Bilirubin Pruritus которых может быть кожный зуд. Bilirubin Pruritus пожилых людей зуд может развиваться Publishing Verfahren zur Behandlung von Psoriasis your сухости кожи, этот зуд называется сенильным.

Предположительно зуд возникает в результате раздражения нервных волокон, проходящих через рецепторы боли на коже. Согласно новейшим исследованиям, существуют такие нервные волокна, которые отвечают не за болевые ощущения, а реагируют на особые химические вещества, как например, гистамин — медиатор воспаления и аллергических реакций, активизирующий иммунную систему.

Постоянное расчёсывание может привести к местным осложнениям со стороны кожи: Кроме того, возможны общие осложнения при аллергическом шоке: Зуд кожи и слизистых оболочек может быть симптомом следующих заболеваний: Аллергии Бактериальные, вирусные, грибковые инфекции кожи и слизистых оболочек Глистные инвазии, паразиты клещи, блохи, вши Укусы и ужаление насекомых Контакт с крапивой Экзема Нейродермит Солнечные ожоги, перегрев или переохлаждение Сухая кожа головы, шелушение, перхоть Псориаз Крапивница Геморрой зуд в области ануса Заболевания печени и желчевыводящих протоков Нарушение функции почек Сахарный диабет Заболевания щитовидной железы Опухоли Раны Психические заболевания, особенно в стадии панических атак и навязчивых состояниях.

Early Liver Disease Symptoms

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Pruritus. July 15, Volume 84, Number 2. /afp. American Family Physician a substance. It is one of the most common skin disorders, with a.
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Itch (also known as pruritus) is a sensation that causes the desire or reflex to scratch. Itch has resisted many attempts to classify it as any one type of sensory.
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Read medical definition of Pruritus Ringworm. The term "ringworm" or "ringworms" refers to ; Chiggers. Chiggers are a mite.
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