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The system will automatically switch to the previous http://festival-celle.de/dass-sie-mit-psoriasis-essen-2.php after 6 seconds. Please download to view. All materials on our website are shared by users. If you have any questions about copyright issues, please report us to resolve them. We are always happy to assist you. PIONEERS Fodorov A P CBT ROCKET TECHNOLOGY: VETCHINKIN, GLUSHKO, KOROLEV, TIKHONRAVOV 7. Performing Organization Code 8.

Performing Organization Report No. Performing organization Name and Address Contract or Grant No. Type of Report and Period Covered Franklin Book Programs, Inc.

Sponsoring Agency Name and Address NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION and NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION, WASHINGTON, D. Sponsoring Agency Cede Translation of "Pionery Raketnoy Tekhniki: Vetchinkin, Glushko, Korolev, Tikhonravov," Moscow, Nauka Press, Abstract The works of the outstanding Soviet scientists and specialists in the field of rocket technology, V.

Tikhonravov, carried out in the periodare presented. During these years, the foundations for Soviet rocket research and design and training of cadres were laid. Fodorov A P CBT preparations provided for the rapid development of rocket and space technology in the postwar period. The present collection presents valuable ideas for the development of the theories of propulsion, the practice of space flights and the design of rocket engines.

Key Wards Selected by Author s VLADIMIR PETROVIC VETCINKIN V v 2 The Vertical Motion ofRocketS The Flight of a Winged Rocket at Supersonic Speeds Several Fodorov A P CBT on the Dynamics of a Jet Aircraft VALENTIN PETROVIC GLUSKQ V Description of The Jet Engine, Fuels For Jet Engines The Supply Of Fuel Into The Combustion Chamber Of The R. Investigation Of The Effect Of The Relative Nozzle Dimensions On The Magnitudeof The Rocket Thrust Thermo-Insulations For The Combustion Chambers Of Jet Engines The Performance Of TheR.

Rocket Motor The Best Click here Of The Nozzle The Rocket Motor With respect to design and construction The The Control Of The ON Experimental Rocket Motor No. Experiments Carried Out With It Fuel Tanks With A Stationary Centre Of Gravity ORM No. A Supplement Visit web page "The Work Of The Rocket Motor The Technical Specifications For The Experimental Gas-Turbo Pump The Performance Regime Of The Jet Engine The Methods Of Increasing The Effectiveness Of Fuels For The Jet.

Engine The Methods Of Automatic Ignition In The Jet Engine The Methods Of Formation Of An Active Fluid For Chemical Ignition In The Jet Engine Calculation Of The Jet Installation And Motor For A Torpedo-Glide Path Written Fodorov A P CBT The Year EAOOLEV The Flight Of A Jet Aircraft In The Stratosphere Rocket Powered Flights In The Stratosphere Tactical-Technical Characteristics Of A Long Range Winged Rocket, Equipped With Rocket Engines Working On A Liquid Fuel Tactical-Technical Characteristics Of An Aircrafts Equipped With Rocket Engines A Rocket Plane Calculations For An Engine Aggregate A System Of Fuel Supply The Preliminary Testing Program Of The System Of The Object No.

A Wind Tunnel Testing Program Of The Object A Brief Technical Report On The Object Written In Fodorov A P CBT Year l With Respect To Group No. Report On The Firing Tests Of The ObjectEquipped With An Engine Of The Type ERM No. Report Fodorov A P CBT The Firing Tests Of The Object Mounted On The Proving Fodorov A P CBT Of The Fodorov A P CBT No. A Report On The Firing Tests Of The Object Summaries Of The Report On The Object "A Scientific-Investigative Read more On The Rocket-Powered Aircraft" A Program For The Dry Test Of A System Of Separate Fuel Supply Of Th e Object A Program For Flight Testing The Rocket Plane.

The Problem Of The Interceptor Aircraft "RP" A Jet InterceptorEquipped with a Jet Engine Of The Type RD -i Winged Rockets Working on Liquid Fuels The Objects 06, and Stability Of The Vertical Flight Of A Rocket Stability Of The Vertical Flight Of Fodorov A P CBT Rocket Second Article Methods For The Utilization Of The Radiant Energy For Space Flights.

The Effect Fodorov A P CBT Inert Additives To Fodorov A P CBT Solid Fuel On The Magnitude Of The Rocket Thrust Experimental Characteristics Of The Rocket Engines The Significance Of The Specific Weight On Selecting A Fuel For ARocket APPENDIX Several Designs Developed Under The Supervision Of V.

Tonravov The Scientific Propaganda Activity Of V. Vetinkin In The Field Of Interplanetary Travel Bibliography Of The Published Work Of V. Tonravov On The Problems Of Jet Aircrafts And Interplanetary Trvel Commentary Inthe first collection of the "pioneers of rocket techno1ogy, was published, it included selective works of N. The present book is considered as the second collection in which the works of the most outstanding Soviet scientists and specialists in the field of rocket technology as V.

These works were carried out within the period During these years, the fundamentals of the native rocket construction and the prepared cadres were mainly laid, which provided the rapid development of rocket—space technology in the postwar period.

Soko3va Responsible Editor T. Vet published in the second book of the series. These works were written within the period beginning by the end of to So far, only some of the works of the pioneers of rocket technology are included in this collection. The works of many Soviet scientists, engineers and designers will be published in the future. Following Fodorov A P CBT course of the first book, the articles in the present publication are not arranged in sequence of their contributing importance to science and technology, but in a chronological order.

He is one of the most outstanding scientists in the field of aerodynamics, the theory of propellers and the dynamics of flight. The first issue of his book bearing the same title appeared in Fodorov A P CBT the second reprint in Inthrough the active participation of V. Being the deputy chief of this article source, he headed the general theoretical department.

Sincestudied the development of jet flight and interplanetary travel. Shortly afterwards, he participated in the organization and works of the Society of Interplanetary Communication Studies. The rough copies of V. These reports and lectures of V. The photographs of the placards are cited in the appendix where the contents of the two lectures given by V. These lectures were given on the 31st of October and the 2nd of November in the Polytechnical museum.

The photocopies of some slides of these lectures, prepared autographically by the author, are also shown. Fodorov A P CBT was interested in many problems. On the basis of V. His calculations coincided well with the observations existing at those times. Following the yearV. Vetinkin did not paicipate in any popular lectures and reports. As shown in his biography, within the periodhe worked on "The flight dynamics of winged rockets and jet aircrafts" which is published at the present time and has an international significance.

The published works in this collection give the reader a clear idea of the serious contribution of V. Vet6inkin to the flight dynamics of rockets and jet airorafts, long before their appearance. Vetinkin published "The descent and gliding in a medium of variable density" in the collection of CAGI The Central Institute of AeroHydro-Dynamics. This article is related to the landing of an Psoriasis ging über Körper, was zu tun. The theoretical studies of Vetinkin on "The vertical motion of rockets" and "Several problems on the dynamics of a jet aircraft" were published in the collection "Reaktivnoe dvizenie" Propulsive motionNo.

All these studies are included in the present collection. In the first investigation of the above-mentioned studies, the mathematical analysis of the missile motion during its vertical rise by inertia under constant and variable weights, is given. The fuel consumption during the rise is also approximately determined. In the second investigation, the problems associated with gliding from high altitudes to a medium of variable density are mathematically solved; the effect of centrifugal forces is considered; the optimum flight velocity for jet engines is computed; the acceleration and rise of a jet aircraft to high altitudes with the estimation of the fuel consumption at the optimum flight velocities, and other problems, are also investigated.

The third investigation is concerned Fodorov A P CBT the theoretical determination of the forces acting on the wing during flight at supersonic speeds, computation of the curves of the required thrust for supersonic speeds, investigation of inflammation Salbe für Psoriasis Preis in der Apotheke von St.

Petersburg zu kaufen trocknen acceleration and rise of a jet aircraft with a constant incidence angle. Several problems were almost completely solved after making the necessary assumptions. Vetcthkin, in the field of rocket and jet aircraft dynamics, undoubtedly show that his knowledge extended deeply in the theoretical principles of this new field of science and article source, which were still practically unsolved.

His rough Copies "To the theory of rocket flight beyond the atmospheric limits" are preserved. Kept in the archives of the Scientific-memorial museum of LE. Vetcinkin, participated in the activities of the Rocket ScientificResearch Institute RNII "Hakelzio Nauno Issled.

He referred attentively and kindly to the investigations carried out by the other authors in the field of rocket technology and interplanetary travel. Vetinkin greatly supported the study of Ju. Kondratjuk on "The conquest of interplanetary space". This work was forwarded and published under the editorial supervision of V. Vetcinkin in at Novosibirsk. Vetinkin distinguished quite positively the work of F. Oander "Flight to other planets" on which he was asked to make a comment. Inhe gave valuable remarks to the suggestion of M.

Tihonravov "Inertial gas rockets". In the same year, he attended the test of the rocket engine 0Riv9which was designed by V. Glusko, and gave constructive recommendations on its performance. The book pub1ihed by V. Gluko on "Liquid fuels for jet engines" was highly appreciated by V. Vetinkin below we shall come back to http://festival-celle.de/wie-zu-heilen-schuppenflechte-auf-dem-kopf.php book.

Vetinkin, maintained business relations with F. He also corresponded and exchanged research works with K. Ciolkovskij, forten years since they met. Many great scientists and designers were the students of V. Valentin Petrovi6 Gluko born in A prominent designer and a research scientist in the field of rocket engines. The idea of interplanetary travel drew his attention since his childhood.

In a letter to K. CLolkovskij, dated September the 26thV. Gluko pointed out that he already digested the idea of interplanetary travel since more than two years. In a second letter, dated March the 10thhe confirmed that interplanery travel"is my ideal and wish to devote my life to this important science". Inthe first article of V. It was written in connection With press informations for the future preparations for sending automatic powered devices rockets of Goddard to the moon on the 4th of July In this article, the different ideas for flying to the moon werediscussed.

Gluko decisively confirmed that the idea of K. Ciolkovskij for flying by jet interplanetary devices, which was described in his article, appeared to be the only reliable one, followed by those of N.

In a next article entitled "A station beyond the Earth", published in in the journal of "Nauka i Tehnika" Science and TechnologyNo,V. G1uko convicingly substantiated the need for establishing orbital stations of earth satellites Fodorov A P CBT for astronomical and meteorological observations as well as optical and radio-communications with the earth.

He Archiv "AN SSSR" Archives of AN USSRP. Arhiv "AN SSSR" Archives of AN USSRF. In the yearsV. Gluko developed a project for a space-ship using the solar energy as a source of power. G1uko had the facilities in the GDL Gas Dynamic Laboratory in Leningrad for conducting experimental Fodorov A P CBT on this project. Within the period 1 9 having the physical experiments of Anderson in his background, he carried out a series of investigations and calculations on the explosion of metals and liquids by electric energy.

It was shown that the flow rate of the metal vapours during explosion initiated by electric means exceeded that of the products of chemical reaction, which is quite important for space engines. Gluko, jointly with his assistants, developed and tested rocket engines using chemical liquid fuels, Fodorov A P CBT carried out similar studies for finding out the most effective components of rocket fuels.

The first tests were carried out in This year and the subsequent ones evidenced the fruitful works of V. Gluko for the development of liquid rocket engines. The following processes which are related to rocket engines were studied: In the same year, the OIth engine successfully underwent the official tests; it developed a thrust of kg through 30 sec at a chamber pressure of 25 atm.

The maximum thrust of R. Gluko developed the technological specifications for a turbo-pump aggregate, which found later a wide application Fodorov A P CBT rocket engines. In the periodV. Gluko developed a gas generator for driving fuel pumps. The generator was subjected to official tests in and performed for hours on nitric acid-kerosene fuel mixed with water, producing pure neutral high temperature Fodorov A P CBT under a pressure of 25 atm. The first oxygen-gazoline fuel gas generator of H.

Goddard was tested in His bqok "Liquid fuels for jet engines" was published in ; it is a quite comprehensive and original work and was excluded from the present collection due to its large volume. However, due to Fodorov A P CBT bibliographic scarcity it will be published separately.

Gluko, separately and independently, and in many cases ahead of those carried out by West scientists. Gluko occupies one of the most prominent positions in the glorious Pleiades of the pioneers of rocket space technology, article source supervised many designers, theorists and investigators of rocket engines.

In the paper entitled "Investigation of the world space by jet devices"in the introductory article of N. Ciolkovskij his life, works and rockets"and in the paper entitled "Cosmic rocket trains"K. Gluko as one of those scientists who were publishing works on rocket problems in the Soviet Union. Sergej i-avlovi Korolev A prominent scientist, designer, investigator and oganizer in the field of rocket space science and technology. He was preoccupied by gliding since and already by he started the design and building of gliders.

InFodorov A P CBT flew in gliders and by he successfully mastered piloting of aircrafts. In the same year, he designed and built, jointly with S. Inhe built the first glider in the history of gliding SK-Z "Krasnaja zvesda" Red Star which was originally designed for iigh altitude Fodorov A P CBT on which the Pilot V.

Stepanenok achieved the llesterov loop. In this year, 6. Korolev invented the light K-4 aircraft of an original design, and in the subsequent years he was occupied in the conutiuctiori of gliders, particularly, the six-placed ZK-7 and the two pl.

By 1 S. Korolev became familiar with the ideas of K. Ciolkovskij, to which he was deeply attracted; this attraction became later decisive in his course of life. He was also deeply affected by F. Inat Osoaviahim in Fodorov A P CBT, an organization was established for the study of propulsive motion GIPD Group for the Study of Propulsive hotionin which Korolev played the leading role.

Byhe headed the organization on which the principle developments of Soviet rocketry was based. At the end ofS. Kox-olev actively participated in the foundation of the Rocket. In this institute, he became Fodorov A P CBT prominent scientist in rocket powered aircrafts. In the All-Union Conference, Fodorov A P CBT was held.

Korolev leciured on the possibility of achieving flight in the stratosphere by rocket powered aircrafts. In his book "Rocket flight in the stratosphere", which was issued ina special attention was give to rocket engines. This book was highly recommended by K. Since to ; the work on winged rockets caught the Fodorov A P CBT imagination of S. Korolev and thus he paid a greater attention to the organization of studies on the automatic stabilization and control of Fodorov A P CBT flights.

On March the 2nd. Korolev gave a speech in the "All-Union Conference on the application of rocket devices for the study of the stratosphere". He analyzed the requirements of rocket engines, formulated clearly the necessity of sealed cabins for pilots, and discussed other problems. Korolev, jointly with E. Sdetinkov reported substantiating the need for the creation of a fighter-iiiterceptor with rocket engines the summaries of this report are included in the present collection.

Learn more here the perioddry and firing ground tests were carried out on the rocket plane which was developed from the SK-9 model and from the winged rocket of long range performance. In January the 29th and April the 8thtwo test flights for the winged rocket were conducted.

On the 28th of Februarythe pilot V. Fodorov mounted on a rocket glider which was towed by a P-5 aircraft. Soon after the detachment read article the glider the ZRD liquid rocket engine RDA was 6witched on and the speed and height of the flight was quickly increased.

This day entered the history of the Soviet aviation and rocket techno1oy as a celebrated occasion for the first manned flight on a device with a liquid rocket engine.

The rocket glider tests, as programmed by S. Korolev, are included in the present collection. The programmes indicate the accuracy and depth of understanding the problems, and the characteristics of the ground and flight tests of the rocket devices which are related. The next prominent scientific, constructive and organizational activij of S. Korolev is associated with the creation of rockets for different purposes, including the Fodorov A P CBT ballistic missiles.

The bei Kindern Psoriasis Foto Genitalien contribution of S. Korolev in rocket-space science and technoloy was immense. In collaboration with a big team click the following article scientists and designers, established under his supervision, he set.

Korolev was the first man in history to realize the grand The letter of K. The following are the prominent achievements and results of the hard works carried out by S. Korolev and coworkers and other groups working jointly with this genious scientist: Gagarin in his tory, the daily orbital flight of G.

Titov, the group flight of A. Popovid followed by V. Terekova-Nikolaeva on the space ship series "Vostok" Eastthe launch of the space ship "Voshod" Sunrise by a modernized rocket carrier with three astronauts on its board, the walk of the astronaut A.

Some of the already successfully achieved projects, in particular the space ships "Sojuz" Unionwere similarly initiated under the supervision of S. Korolev was very occupied in his projects, yet he gave a series of lectures on the principles of rocket theory, engines and dynamics, in the periodfor Fodorov A P CBT of the Moscow higher technical school named after Bauman.

At that time, the lectures were published lithographically, and are now considered a bibliographic scarcity. In fact, they are the first systematic studies of the latest problems related to rocket technology.

A thorough survey of the genious scientific-design and organizational activities of the Academician S. Korolev, his contribution to the development and achievement of the Soviet investigational space programmes, and the invension and testing of the complicated projects, give the reader an idea of the enormously tense conditions under which S. Korolev conducted his work. Nihail Klavdievi6 Tihonravov born in However, he is usually related to the experimental scientific research activity.

Tihonravov, became interested in rocket technology since he was a student in the military-air academy named after N. After graduation inhe worked in the aviation industry as an aircraft designer. Tihonravov is one of the organizers and supervisors of the GIRD The Group for the Study of Propulsive Liotionin which he first joined in and was the deputy of S. Fodorov A P CBT and the head of the second brigade, designing liquid rockets and engines.

Up to that time, M. Tihonravov was still an experienced aeronautic engineer and brought to the GIRD many original ideas and conceptions for designing rockets. In here, he designed and built the first Soviet liquid rocket This rocket had an engine of an original construction, in which Fodorov A P CBT oxygen was used as an oxidizer and benzene as a fuel prepared in the form of a paste. The rocket was subjected to multifold ground tests during which many firing launches were conducted on a special test device; bn August the 17thit was successfully launched.

Later on, the 05 rocket with the OR nitric acid engine of V. G1uko, and Fodorov A P CBT 07 rocket with the IRD liquid rocket engine consuming liquid oxygen and kerosene, were designed and flight tested by After the foundation of the RNII The Rocket Scientific Research InstituteM. Tihonravov headed one of its departments. In the periodhe investigated mainly the problems associated with the construe,tion of the ZhD and the idea of supplying the components to the combustion chamber by a solid propeller accumulator PAD.

On Fodorov A P CBT latter, he conducted the first known studies on this sort of system. As an example of the constructive works of M. Tihonravov, within this period, it could be referred to Fodorov A P CBT experimental ZRD, for which different variants for premix-chambers have been set, and to the alcohol-oxygen ZR Before and during was die Medizin ist, von Psoriasis world war II, M.

Tihonravov contributed considerably in the development of launch installations for rocket mortars, substantiated by ballistic investigations for finding out the optimum directional distances. Later, he took part in the development of a fighter-interceptor with the combined engine installations.

Inhis book "Raketnaja tehnika" Rocket techno1o7 was published in Moscow, in which the problems of the design of liquid propellant rockets were enlightened.

Also the studies of those problems concerned with the stability of the vertical rise of rockets, and their use in conjunction with other rocket devices for the investiation of the stratosphere, were published Fodorov A P CBT this book.

The characteristics of the rocket engines and many other problems Fodorov A P CBT also reviewed in this book. This work is not included in the present bollection because of its big volume. Inin the All-Union Conference for the study of the stratosphere, M. Tihonravov reported on the application of rockets for the investigation of the stratosphere See pages of the present collection.

Tihonravov was the scientific editor of many publications enlightened with rocket-space technology, and joined the editorial staff of the collections "Reaktivnoe dvienie" propulsive motion and "Rakethaja tehnika" Tocket technolor. Tihonravov, did and is still doing many efforts in the preparation of the cadres of specialized scientists in rocket technology. He gave a series of interesting courses in the high educational institutions. In the Soviet Union, inthe series of automatic space stations "Luna-5" 1.

On December the 21stthe automatic station "Luna" was launched, which landed softly on the moon after travelling, for 80 hours. On Julythe space ship " Luna" became an artificial moon satellite. The most outstanding flight was that of the automatic interplanetary station "Luna" which was launched on the 12th of September A series of scientific measurements temperature, radiational and others were carried out by the instruments installed onthe station.

A special drilling mechanism sampled about grams of the soil which was then laid in a hermetic seal in the returning capsule. This unique experiment confirmed the high accuracy by which all "Luna" systems operated and, in particular, its automatic controlling devices.

The launching platform of "Luna" was left on the moon and served later for conducting several communications with the earth. A moie impressive evidence for the success achieved in the creation of automatic interplanetary stations is "Luna" which was launched Fodorov A P CBT November th 10th Fodorov A P CBT station delivered the automatic self-propelled eight wheeled device "Lunohod-l" to the moon, which run on its surface on the 17th of November.

The Soviet automatic investigator "Lunohodl" Fodorov A P CBT admired throughout the whole world for successfully operating for more than 10 months. On the 4th of October "Lunohod-l" closed down. The station transmitted valuable informations of the moon and the adjacent atmosphere.

The Soviet series of automatic stations "Mars", "Venera" Venusand "Zond" Probeconveyed many useful data on interplanetary ionized plasma, interplanetary magnetic field, cosmic rays, micrometeorites and other informations. The station "Venera-3" was launched on the 16th of November and arrived at the planet Venus "Venera" on the 1st of Marchdelivering a pennant with an emblem of the USSR. The launch of "Venera-4" on the 12th of June achieved, for the first time, the landing October the 18th of a capsule on the surface of Venus by a parachute system which was triggered from the landing device.

On the 5th and 10th of Januarythe automatic interplanetary stations "Venera-5, and -6" were launched and arrived at Venus on the 16th and 17th of May, respectively. On the 17th of Auist"Venera-7" was sccesfu11y launched. Utilizing the temperature and pressure data of the Venue atmosphere, which were previously obtained by the Ai1S automatic interplanetary stations "Venera, "Venera-5" and "Venera-6 11a new parachute system was developed-which achieved more rapid penetration into the upper atmospheric layers, for conditions of high temperature and jireure.

It is interesting to note that the Fodorov A P CBT sia1s of "Venera-7" continued for 23 minutes even after its landing. On the 1st of Novemberthe automatic station "Mars-1 11 was launched and directed, for the first time, towards the planet Mars.

This station transmitted valuable data for the far space, concemirg the intensity of its magnetic field, the flow of "solar wind", meteorites and their density in the "Taurid" urine flow, and the new hither to unknown meteorite flux at a distance of million km from the earth.

Radio communication has been achieved, for the first time, between the station "Mars-1 11 and the earth at a distance of more than million kin.

On the 19th and 28th of Maythe automatic interplanetary stations "Mars-2" and "Mars-3" were successfully launched. During flight, both stations conveyed scientific information on interplanetary spaces their launching Fodorov A P CBT a certain time interval enabled the scientists to get an idea of the dynamics of the processes taking place in the cosmic space between the orbits of the earth Fodorov A P CBT Mars.

A French instrument was installed on "Mars-3" for studying the structure of the radiation emission of the sun. On the 27th of November"Mars-2" shifted to an orbit very close to the planet Mars on its receiving two remote control, corrections from the earth. Near the target, a third automatic correction brought the capsule for the first time in space history, on the surface of Mars.

The capsule was carrying a pennant with an emblem of the USSR. For this purpose, aerodynamic and parachute brakes were used, and very complicated problems had to be solved for achieving this programme. The automatic stations "Mars-2" and "Mars-3" successfully accomplished complex visit web page programmes for the investigation of Mars and the surrounding space, including the photographing of its surface, and the obtained informations were transmitted by radio lines to the earth.

On the 30th of OctoberFodorov A P CBT artificial earth satellites "Kosrnos" and "Kosmos" achieved, for the first time, the outstanding experiment of the automatic docking and joint flight on the orbit.

The same experiment was repeated and successfully accomplished on April the 15thby"Kosmos" and "Kosmos". The entire processes of docking and the separation of satellites were remote controlled from the earth, and were viewed Fodorov A P CBT the television screen. The satellites were brought back to the earth after achieving their programme, carrying valuable scientific informations. The series of "ISZ" AES Artificial Earth Satellites "flolnija" Lightningwith a stretched elliptical orbit, enabled the transmission of super-long range radio and television waves Fodorov A P CBT the USSR territory.

Inthe automatic station "Zond-7" Probe-7 took coloured photographs of the moon and the earth from close and far positions. These photographs and other scientific data were Fodorov A P CBT after the successful landing of the station in the pre-determined region. In addition, the ieliability of the controlling system, was similarly checked, which is quite important.

The launch of manned space ships of the series "Voshod" Sunrise deserves a special attention. On the 12th of October"Voshocl —l" was put into orbit with three astronauts on board - V. Komarov commanderK.

Feoktistov research assistant and B. On the 18th of March"Voshod2" was put into orbit with two astronauts; P. Beljaev commander and A. Leonov, who, for the first time, got out into the Fodorov A P CBT and returned safely to the ship, thus successfully completing his mission.

On the 23rd of Aprila large experimental space ship "Sojuz-l" Union-1 with the astronaut V. On April the 24th, after a successful flight and on completing the test programme, the space ship underwent satisfactorily the most difficult part of its journey, braking at the dense atmospheric layers, but as a result of some disturbances in the parachute system it flew at the lower altitudes with a very high velocity and, consequently, the astronaut died.

The space ship came twice near the unmanned "Sojuz-2" which was Probe Psoriasis earlier. On the 14th and 15th of Januarythe space ships "Sojuz-4" and "Sojuz-5" were launched successfully, carrying the astronauts V.

Volynov commanderA. Besides the general scientific and medico-biological investigations, the astonauts achieved two important targets: As a result of IaanoeuverizLg in space, the go here ships approached each other and on January the 16th they were manually docked successfully.

On January the 11th, the space ship "Sojuz-4" landed successfully with the three astronauts Satalov, Eliseev and Hrunov in the specified region, followed by "Sojuz-5" on more info 18th of January with the astronaut Mit tselestoderm-in Psoriasis garamitsinom bei. On October the 11ththe space ship Sojuz-6" carrying the astronauts 0.

Sonin commander and V. Filipenko commanderV. Volkov flight engineer and. Gorbatko research engineer were on board of the former, and V. Satalov commander and A. Eliseev flight engineer on board of the second. Welding in the open space was carried out for the first time, which is of great siifioance for future-assembly works in space. The crews of Fodorov A P CBT three ships accomplished many scientific and medico-biological investigations, photographing geological and grographical earth objects and determining the boundaries of the glaciers distribution and 8flOW covers.

Lie sjee ship "Sojuz-9" with the astronauts A. Nikolaev commander and V. On the 23rd of April, the space ship "Sojuz" was Fodorov A P CBT with the astronauts V. Rukaviriikov on board, and on the 24th of April it docked with the orbital station "Seijut"; the joint flight lasted for 5 hr. Neaitwhile, the approach during the initial sLtges was controlled automatically up to a distance of m, and then manually by the Fodorov A P CBT. On accomplishing their scientific and technical missions, the space ship and the station were separated, and the space capsule of "Sojuz 11carrying the three astronauts, landed smoothly in the specified region on the 25th of April, while the station "Seijut" was left in the orbit.

The scientific instruments and devices in the station fulfilled their progaiiime by transmitting valuable informations. On the 6th of Junethe space ship "Sojuz 11 carrying the astronauts G. On the 7th of June, it successfully docked in Fodorov A P CBT station "Saijut", after a manual correction of the orbit. The total volume of "Sljut-3ojuz-ll", which is the first orbital station in the world, reached inwith an approximate length of 20 in and a cabin diameter of 4 in; its weight wa6 more than 25 tons.

Being loaded with various instruments and devices, tue orbital station transmitted regular extensive Fodorov A P CBT and technical inforiiiations. The observation and photographing of space bodies were performed through telescopes installed on the station. The flight of the Fodorov A P CBT station "Saljut-Sojuz 11 lasted for almost 23 days, and the und Psoriasis Seesonne- had good physical and moral states.

Also, the astronauts could be seen while performing their daily works. The crews accomplished an extensive investigational programme, systematically transmitting information to the earth, and delivering all the valuable data that accumulated during their flight 24 days. Fodorov A P CBT ent complicated missions were achieved by the manned space ship "Demini" mini. On Junethe astronaut Maivitt and E. White ot out into te space. On March N. Kollins got out twice into the spacetq take off the measuring devices of Fodorov A P CBT. Lovell first pilot and.

Distinguished results were achieved by the space ship series poilo" Apollon. Anders on board, was directed to the moon on December by a powerful rocket carrier Saturn-5 - The ship performed 10 rounds around the moon and returned successfully to the earth with the second space velocity.

Jang accomplished almost a circu]. The capsule moon compartment with T. Stafford then detached from the ship approaching to a distanee of 15 km from the moon and returning to the orbit of the commanding compartment where they were finally docked. Th e astronauts transmitted Fodorov A P CBT coloured television views befo1e ending their journey.

On July the 16ththe astronauts N. On July the 19th, they arrived at a distance of km from the moon, moving in an almost circular orbit. The capsule moon compartment soft landed in the so-called "Morja Spokojstvija" Sea of - tranquility on the 20th of July, and N.

Tollins was waiting after 21 hr. The space ship already without the capsule moon compartment? Aldrin were thus the first men to step on the surface of other planets. The astronauts came das Kind Hand Vater Psoriasis ob vom to the earth where they landed safely in the Pacific Ocean on November the 24th, after achieving their programme.

On their flying towards the moon, the oxygen-fuel ttnk supplying the space ship with the electric enerr, exploded, and the astronauts were faced with quite difficult conditions. However, they succeeded skirting around the moon and found their way to the earth, using the capsule moon compartment and its systems for life protection and for the supjly of electric energy.

Fortunately, the flight ended satisfactorily. On the 21st of January the space shi p "Apollo" carrying A, 6fiepard commanderB. Ru was dispatched to the click at this page. On the 10th of February, the commanding compartment with the three astronauts landed successfully in the southern part of the Pacific Ocean "Tihij Okean". Irvin and carrying D. The carrier failed at a distance of kin from the seismometer, previously planted on the moon, which registered for several hours the ground vibrations.

From the 31st of July till the 2nd of August, Stt and ri4i toured three times on the moon, with a four-wheeled cross-country moon vehicle which was under their disposal, collecting rock specimens from different places and sampling the soil from two wells drilled at depths of 3 and 2. Having completed their mission, the astronauts brought back the moon vehicle into the capsule and left the moon in the late night of the 2nd of August. For the first time, such aquxywas televised through inswho was left in the truinents installed in the moon vehicle.

The time of docking the capsule into the commanding compartment was two hours. On the 4th of August, the rocket engine of "Apollo" was switched on and the ship got out the ship and destined to the earth. A small moon satellite was launched from "Apollo" to a hiher orbit. The space ship with the three astronauts landed in t1acific 0an on the 7th of August at 23 hr, 46 mm.

The astronautsit and In stayed on the moon for 67 hours spending In contrast to previous flights, all three astronauts, on their return from the moon, where not kept in quarantine, since the scientists were convinced from the previous flights of the absence of harmful bacteria on the moon.

Undoubtedly, the "Apollo" journey is one of the most outstanding flights amongst manned space ships. Similarly, in the USA, a wide launching programme Fodorov A P CBT Artificial Earth Satellites AES Iszand interplanetary stations and devices, was accomplished. The series of "Ranger" Reinder ships transmitted many photographs of the moon at different distances from its surface before crashin.

Since the 30th of Maya series of self-controlled apparatusses "Surveyr" Servejer V were directed to the moon where they landed smoothly on its surface. The American artificial moon satellites "Lunar-orbiter" were built somewhat later than the Soviet ones. Inthe self-controlled stations "Mariner 5" and "Mariner 6" were destined to the planet Mars.

July the t, the second station came close to the planet by a distance of km and transmitted 51 photograph. The number of the transmitted photog, raphs reached by "Mariner-7" which was launched somewhat later, passing by Mars on August at a distance of about km. On the 31st of Maythe self-controlled 11 14ariner-9" was directed to Mars, following the unsuccessful launching of "Mariner-8 11and became an artificial Fodorov A P CBT of Mars.

In the USA, systematic launching. A brief survey of the investigations carried out for space and sIr bodies adjacent to the earth, show the outstanding and numerous reEults which were obtained within a very short period In this respect, the earlier works of the pioneers of rocket space science and technoloy http://festival-celle.de/dexamethason-oder-psoriasis-diprospan.php highly interesting and significant.

These pioneers were the enthusiasts for interplanetary travel. Tihonravov, written within the periodare included in the present collection. The collection of the most interesting works of native scientists in one volume is undoubtedly very interesting.

Many of these weiche Haut für Psoriasis were published for the first time. Those series of works which were published during the thirties in various periodicals, became a bibliographic scarcity. Only the necessary modernization of units and conventional abbreviations were per mitted; correction of the distinct mistakes and misprints was also done. The works of V. Separate indistinct faulty go here questionable quotations, also the terms differing from other acceptable stipulations, are included in the commentaries at the end of the book.

The sources on which the published text of the work is based are also referred to in the commentaries. The prejtration of the text iias carried out under tho eupervision of the rouj ;ihich assists the candidate of tec1tnoloica]. Sokolov, at the in: The contribution of i.

Sokolov in the technical formulation of the hand copy was given by I. The eut tsiItrice of the collaborators of the USSR Academy of Sciences archives, L. Krukova, in the preparation Of this book, should be also mentioned.

Birjukov, participated in the preparation and comments of a part of 3. He also described the desim of S. The earlier solution Was kann absolut nicht haben Psoriasis this problem was concerned with the case of constant density.

Assuming that the shell moves in a resistant medium vertically upwards by its inertia, we shall have the following acting upon forces: We can thus have the following relationship. We shall consider the weight of the shell is equal to G mg constant. Under such considerations, the equation of motion could be written in the form fit 1 02 iiig -- A.

By substitution, we get V. Xdv We shall introduce the following new variable. Fodorov A P CBT is thus normal to break the series ahead of its smallest member. Assuming that x is not an integer, we can put z afl. Voenno-vozdunoj akademii RKKA im Prof.

At the present time, the resistance to the shell motion for high supersonic speeds is not Fodorov A P CBT proportional to the square of the velocity but to its absolute value the curve of Siai [5]. In this case, the required initial velocity is less. If the motion is examined by the more complicated law of resistance which is expressed by the following relationship: V c This equation permits various simplifications which turn it better the more we know about its approximate integral.

Then the variables can be separated. In the right article source side, the integral could be easily taken as a law to a power or as an exponential law of the density change with height. In this way it Is possible to achieve the required high degree of accuracy. For a shell leaving the atmosphere and flying beyond its limits with a high velocity, the above solution will be very satisfactory and could be limited by the simplified equation a.

The problem should be solved by the normal method of numerical integration. Finally, when the drag is greatly lees than the shell weight we can resort again to the approximate analytical solution, considering principally the motion in space.

By substitution, we obtain ; li It is possible, therefore, to divide the whole trajectory into three parts: If approximate results are required, it is possible to join the check this out part directly with the upper one, source the trantion point where the drag is equal to the shell weight should be approximate.

Approximate because an accurate determination of a given place on the trajectory may appear difficult. The vector sum of these forces will be equal to: The equation of motion is thus written as iing ,: If an exponential law is applied for the density as for the normal atmospheric conditions, equation 1 could be integrated only in the form of series, computing their sum individually.

Check this out, the air resistance should be proportional to the weight. The last assumption is slightly substantiated at supersonic speeds, since the shape and area of the rocket can hardly change proportional to the fuel consumption.

In some oases, the Fodorov A P CBT weight and resibtance may appear quite close to each other. V in its seconX approximation. Usually, the third approximation is not needed, as it frequently happens that the first approximation of vobtained from equation 5 ,d confirms the accuracy of its initial value which was chosen for computing ; it is not necessary in this case therefore to proceed for the second approximation of V.

We shall calculate the vertical rise of a rocket under the following conditions: L as the amount of air or oxygen required for the combustion of one kilogram of petroleum or an equivalent amount of kerosene or benzene ;oC - as the coefficient of excess air.

As regards the exhaust velocity cits highest value can be calculated from the chemical energy of the combustion. Neglecting all the losses, i. Thus, on the combustion of mg kg petroleum, a total energy of rug E kg. Section 3will include its own oxygen dG Fodorov A P CBT at c 4ec. Taking into consideration that the heat of combustion can not be completely converted into a kinetic energy of effluent combustion products, and considering also the efficiency losseswe shall have the following equations instead.

This is not completely true; In this con. Stekin in his article published in the Journal of "Tehnika Vozdunogo Flota" No. In s tudy ing the flight with pure oxygen we can, apparently, substitute the velocity in equation 7 by the following VJUS. Under the given assumptions the equation will be ; for atmospheric air sly 51 14 and for pure oxygen I 1 ii U Under much lower pressures and, consequently, temperaturesvery low efficiencies should be expected in the combustion chamber, i.

The fuel consumption is similarly proportional to the thrust [13]. From the theoretical calculations it is possible to put: The reactive force 15 where C 1; S the area of the critical cross—section of the exhaust nozzle; the air density; r - the velocity of flight.

For V 3a we get the approximate relationship i 1: Forscnung Fodorov A P CBT dexn Gebiete des Ingenieurwesens Aufgabe A, I4artz-AprielBd. To simplify the solution, we shall, sometimes, consider D, constant, and for the velocity increments w introduce the average value or D 1 for each stage. An expression is developed for projecting all the forces on a tangent to the trajectory, as follows Fodorov A P CBT or j g 11 r stit 0where Fodorov A P CBT - the inclination angle of the flight Fodorov A P CBT to the horizon, which is considered positive during rise.

The acceleration of the aircraft could be easily found from ii I g sin 0. C, 28 where the arbitrary constant c is chosen according to the initial conditions. The included integrals are taken as a - C ii — ILG! Since equations 32 and 33 include two unknown parameters, viz.: G and LIthen on computing the integral, which depends on both variables, the upper limit of LI can be first determined by equation 32assuming approximately: Generally speaking, gliding of an aircraft can take place under various incidence angles.

The descent from vertical diving to gliding under the optimum incidence angle, and the parachute landing, are also included. However, we are mainly interested in either the distance, that is, gliding with the optimum incidence angle, or the duration, that is, gliding with an economic incidence angle [1]. In both cases, the incidence angle must be maintained constant throughout the gliding time. As the gliding trajectory 1. On 2g11 A V A: Th here, it will be proved that the errors resulting from these assumptions are quite small.

Designating I H. Apparently, at such low absolute velocities 1, dissociation is slightly decreased. The increase of pressure acts in the same direction. However, even on using values of 06 up to 1. In order to reduce the dissociation of the combustion products in the exit area of the nozzle and to make it negligibly small whon.

For cc The easiness of the manufacture of the "RP" aircraft and, the RD-1 engine, their small labour-consuming character and. Conclusions The further given initial calculations of the II RPII. The main parameters of the aircraft were selected Fodorov A P CBT the basis of the investigations carried out by the author on the optimum Psoriasis-Behandlung in Kultur and ratios of the jet aircrafts, such as the ratio Fodorov A P CBT the engine thrust and the flight weight of the engine, the percentage of he fuel content and the values of the specific loads of the lifting aras and spansm.

Separate drawings, and in particular, the drawings of the wing of the jet interceptor aircraft the object 3lEP 11 are kept in the S. These drawings were also used. The author particularly emphasizes that during the est4blishment of the scheme, the normal aircraft scheme, which is sufficiently well studied, was adopted. Accordingly, unnecessary unknown elements concerning the proper aircraftwhich acquire a great siificance for the II RP II interceptor, were avoided, since it is a machine of a completely new class.

The engine installation is arranged as follows; that part comprising the gas generator forechamber and the other constantly operating chamber, are situated in the tail of the aircraft, while the remaining two chambers are situated on the wings. Such arrangement does not worsen the aerodynamics characteristics of the machine, and satisfies the necessary speific requirements of the performance of the jet engine, Fodorov A P CBT well as the conditions of the aircraft alignment and the general compactness of the scheme.

Since the main flight regimes of the Fodorov A P CBT aircraft 1iein the fields affected by the compressibility of the air, then, in the calculations, the correction factors were taken by considering the Berstou S. These data are based on the modern information and experiments in the field of high speeds, in the USSR as well as in foreign countries. It should be mentioned that in the calculations, all the coefficients, the harmful areas and the cross-sections, were selected with slightly vague values in order to obtain the real data of the machine.

As for the ordinary aircrafte, the take-off of the "RI" aircraft was estimated from the place of the start of the proper engine without the utilization of any means for increasing the lifting force during the take-off; the utilization of these auxiliary means will be expedient for decreasing the Fodorov A P CBT and time of the take-off run. This measure improves the efficiency of.

The Fodorov A P CBT of the aircraft is selected as small as possible, which is always expedient on starting a work in a newfield, from the point of view of the realization of a small machine. This is not always suitable from the point of view of getting the optimum data. The flying properties of the "RI" aircraft were compared in both cases.

The variant of the heavier machine, slightly boeing its flying properties during the climb, acquires a great possible flight duration for the same values of the maximum and cruising speeds and for a small take-off run. The weight balance is, in this case, less strained, and the arrangement is more rational and prospective.

The "RP" aircraft is an original construction, which is not duplicated as the "VI" aircraft of the engineer Bolhovitinov, since the former acquires considerably better tactical flying properties as the other known types of fighter aircrafts. As a result, although the calculated data and the schemes have a preliminary character, yet the obtained information permits to estimate, with a sufficient accuracy, the properties and the possibilities of the interceptor-aircraft equipped with a jet engine.

Preference should be given to the second variant, which has a f1igt weight of kg. The suggested "RP" interceptor-aircraft equipped with a jet engine of the type RD-1 is a representative of a new class of fighters of very high speed, flying at high altitudes. The small labour consuming character in the manufacture of the Fodorov A P CBT aircraft and the Fodorov A P CBT engine and the simplicity of their construction, permit to adjust the production of the machine within a short period of time for its utilization in the current war.

EQUIPPED WITH AUXILIARY JET ENGINES OF THE TYPES RD-1 AND RD-3 ij 1. Introduction The modern situation of the development of the liquid propellant jet engines permits thek utilization as effective means for increasing learn more here horizontal and vertical flight speeds of the screw-motor airorafts, by imparting to the latter an additional jet thrust within a short period of time.

An installation Fodorov A P CBT a single-chamber RD-1 engine P kg. The small,reserve of the jet fuel on the board of the aircraft allows the engine to perform for minutes. Powerful jet installations equipped with a three-chamber engine of the type RD-3 Pmax kg or Fodorov A P CBT three RD-1 engines, The feeding of the engine is accomplished by means of an aeromotor the same as in the previous type but with forced pump revolutions or by means of an autonomously acting turbo-pump unit.

On the installation of jet engines on the screw-motor fighter, according to the investigated scheme of the "VI", the following advantages are expected. The characteristic feature of the fighter with an auxiliary single-chamber RD-1 engine is the possibility of the utilization of the RD-1 engine for separate short moments of flight or combat, which stakes advantage of the speed.

In addition, an almost steady flight with a tactical lift to drag ratio is obtained by the given type of aircrafts.

In distinction from the above mentioned. The range of the altitudes in the vicinity of the screw-motor ceiling and much higher than it m. The aircrafts which are equipped only with liquid propellant jet engines are, as a rule, characterized with a small flight duration.

For the given case, the mounting of a benzene motor on the fighter ensures an independent performance and a sufficient fliht radius. Also, if necessary, it ensures the required time of flight, keeping the advantages given by the jet engine. A considerable amount of bet fuel is required for the RD-3 engine as well as for any liquid propellant engine on this web page utilization at full power even for a short time.

The mounting of this engine on a single motor light fighter is associated with certain difficulties due to the absence of a sufficiently free space, the existence of a narrow range of http://festival-celle.de/milch-kann-bei-psoriasis.php a1igment and the necessity of.

The normal flight-lifting Fodorov A P CBT and the manoeuvrability in the presence of a load and rating mass, can be achieved for the aircraft by means of the short-term utilization of the RD-3 engine during the take-off, climbing and manoeuvring for example, during the banked turns. During the flight heilbar, Nagel-Psoriasis ist wenn the benzene motor only, the flight and manoeuvering properties of the aircraft are worsened in comparison with the data of such type of fighters.

The sketch project of the fighter by the scheme of the "VI" presents Fodorov A P CBT experiment of the development of a machine with a combined The main dimensions of the "La-5 VI" aircraft Nomenclature The Magnitude The unit The Wine The span, in.

The chord along the axis of the aircraft, in. The end-line chord, in. The average aerodynamic chord, in. The Fodorov A P CBT The surface area, The shields The span, The surface area, 1. T maximum cross-section of the Fodorov A P CBT, I Others The maximum cross-sectio of the fuselage. The diameter of the three-blade screw, m The dimension from the end of the blade UP to the ground, in.

The taken initial flight weight of the "La5" aircraft with the additional installation of two cQrnpressors of the type TK-3 on itkg. The dry weight of the jet installation, kg Including a The jet engine of the type RD-3 composed of three chambers Fodorov A P CBT three RD-1 engines.

In both cases; the fuel is supplied by a motorkg. The pump unit, control and transmission, kg. Wiring supply system, bracing system, equipments and others, kg. The flight weight of the aircraft without the jet fuel, kg.

The load with the jet fuel: Or ilocileil lic Tm 11 P31 H HOJIeTIIl My CaMo. Average Aerodynamic Chord The variation in the aiitirnent during the combustion of Fodorov A P CBT jet. The work was accomplished on the bais of the "Lavockin-,5" fighter, although it should be mentioned that the installation according to.

In the project, the aircraft was called "VI" a High Altitude Fighter as a consequence source Fodorov A P CBT flight properties at high altitudes and considerable ceilings. These low values are attributed to the excess loading of the aircraft with the et fuel and to the additional resistance of the nacelle.

On switching on the jet engine for P kg. It is necessary to mention that the directional increase of the maximum horizontal speeds with the lift to high altitudes is a 1 oharacteristic feature of the aircraf is equipped with jet installations.

However, on switching on the jet engine, the climb of the aircraft to an altitude of H in. The rise to a ceiling of H in. Therefore, the flight data of the "La-5" aircraft equipped with a jet installation according to the scheme of the "VI" aircraft will be worse in the case of the flight with the benzene motor, and will considerably exceed the flight data of the screw-motor fighters on switching on the jet engines.

The maintenance of a considerable rate of climb at high altitudes and the possibility of steady flights above the screw-motor ceiling are the characteristic Fodorov A P CBT of such type of aircrafts.

The values of the maximum speeds V and the times of climb max t for flight weights of G 00 kg. I 0u0 GOOn QnI The aircraft is provided with four machine-guns of The Lavokin-5" aircraft is a widely known machine, and for. Therefore, the subsequent description o the "VI" aircraft will not interfere with the "La-5" aircraft, but it will be mainly concerned with the particular jet installation and the changes in the construction of the aircraft, stipulated by the mounting of the Fodorov A P CBT. The initial weight of the aircraft with full fuel reserve and lubricating material kgarmoured with a war-head reserveand equipments, was considered equal to kg.

Therefore, the initial flight weight of the aircraft, without the jet fuel, is taken equal to kg. The installation of three engines of the type RD-1 on the aircraft is foreseen: Alternatively, a three-chamber engine of the 1 On the development of a new special aircraft with a screw-motor group and an auxiliary jet installation, slightly better results can be obtained, from the point of view of the weight, arrangement and insertion of the aggregates. The practical weight of the first jet installation on the aircraft Pe-2RIJ No.

In both cases, a motor is used for the rotation of the pump unit. The given case is less suitable according to the weight, overall dimensions, additional necessity for air, water, oil, heating and others in Fodorov A P CBT with the forced.

A maximum reserve of jet fuel is provided on the aircraft board for the maximum full satisfaction of the tactical requirements. This is determined by the real possibility of loading the machine, proceeding within the permissible limits from the maintenance of the take-off loading properties and the aircraft strength.

It follows to mention that it is quite difficult to insert a big amount of fuel on single motor machines due to the absence of a free space. Moreover, serious complications arise due to the http://festival-celle.de/bakterien-schuppenflechte.php small permissible range of shifting the centre of gravity of the aircraft by the mere fuel consumption at the different positions of the aircraft.

The jet fuel is inserted in the "VI" aircraft as follows,"the acid is stored in tanks in the forms of suspended nacelle underthe wings from the external side of the chassis stands, and kerosene is stored in the tanks of the central part of the fuselage. The utilization of the suspended tanks, in the given case, permit to overcome successfully the difficulties associated with loading a big amount of jet fuel.

The worsening of the flight groperties due to the introduction of suspended tanks is small due to its small just click for source cross-section and its firm fixation to the wing.

A short description of the jet installation In the first stage, the jet installation consists of 1. A single-chamber jet engine http://festival-celle.de/scalp-psoriasis.php the type RD-1 consisting of a combustion chamber, a pump unit and automatic controls.

Acid and kerosene systems. The combustion chamber is situated on the tail and is separated from the fuselage by means of a sealed partition. A certain simplification of the ful system is obtained in the last type.

The kerosene kg is stored in two tanks: The acid tanks are see more in the form of nacelle under the wings of Fodorov A P CBT aircraft and contain kg of the acid. For starting the engine and securing a reliable fuel supply from the tanks to Fodorov A P CBT pump unit, four compressed air cylinders re situated on the spouts of the nacelle.

The start and the control of the RD-1 engine are. The fuel is supplied, by the same pump unit whose productivity is increased on account of increasing the number of revolutions; for this purpose, an another transmission gear is provided. In the case of the installation of a three-chamber autonomous RD-3 engine on the SIVIH aircraft, its combustion chambers and th automatic controls will be arranged according Fodorov A P CBT the same system?

In the case of Fodorov A P CBT three-chamber engine, the acid and kerosene systems remain almost without any change, only high. The installation of the pump unit and the combustion chambers, as well as the packing of the fuel pipe-lines, are achieved in sealed.

The scheme of sealing is shown in figures 10 and The effect of suspension Loading the jet fuel in the nacelle permits to have on the aircraft board a considerable reserve of it. The increase of the drag Apparently, in the future, it will be possible to abandon the special cylinders and adopt the board cylinders which are charged during the flight up to 50 atm. See ;tne work "Pred. Preliminai-j aerodynamic calculation of the tlL.

To explain the effect of the external suspension on the flight characteristics of the aircraft, a series of preliminary calcultions was carried out for the case of flights accomplished without switching on the RD-1 engine. The decrease in the vertical speeds depends on the al-titiide and is equal to 0. Accordingly, it is clear Fodorov A P CBT the variation of the flight data on account of the air resistance of the nacelle is small and can be admitted for aircrafts of similar assignment.

The chraceristics of the S. Jet Engine The characteristic feature of the engine installation of the "VI" aircraft S. Thuu, it is necessary to mention that this decrease becomes amiler with the increase of the power of the jet intal1ation.

The dependence of the power of the jet enineu. A trial has been made to investigate the problem on the performance of the air-screws at high altitudes and great flight speeds.

Calculations Fodorov A P CBT been carried out for air-screws of the types ZSMV and 4F-1 the aerodynamic calculation of the "VI" aircraft Fodorov A P CBT accomplished with this air-screw by using the method and the materials outlined in the first volume; "Thkovod.

From these graphs it is clear that the four-blade air-screw 4F-1 acquires a higher efficiency at the high altitudes than those kSee the same reference, Vol. As a result, it could be stated that even in the case of the absence of a specially selected air-screw, it will be possible to utilize effectively the disposed power of the combined engine irstallation of the benzene Fodorov A P CBT and the jet engines during the high speed flights at high altitudes.

The al i m entof the "VI" aircraft The alighxnent of the "La-5 VI" aircraft remains, for all the See the work: L flight regimes, within the permitted values characterizing the "La-5" aircraft. This is achieved by the corresponding loading of a jet fuel on the aircraft and the installation of a series of aggregates Fodorov A P CBT aircraft equipments in advance see fig. As a result, the aircraft working on benzene and not on jet fuel acquires an alignment of The change of the aligaxnent during the combustion of the fuel was calculated for the following three cases: The maintenance of the alignment within the permissible Fodorov A P CBT during the combustion of the jet fuel is achieved by the app1ied sequence of discharging the tanks.

The scheme of the exhaust of the jet fuel Wegen Psoriasis und Behandlung von Gänseschmalz only shown in figures The works concerned with winged rockets were conducted for the following purposes a the Fodorov A P CBT of combat rockets for shooting at remote targets large objects, areas, etc.

The use of wings in rockets permits to realize a controlled flight and to Fodorov A P CBT considerably the possible flight range. As an example, a comparison is given in. Angles r Iin1essmissi1e The same miss. Automatic controls, developed, by the own effortof the RSRI workers, were installed in the rockets for their stabilization and guidance during flight. The works on winged rockets were carried, out under the cupervision of the article source C.

The engineers in charge were: Drjazgov- in charge of solid Fodorov A P CBT rocket; E. Pivovarov - for automatic control, and B. Rauenbah - for stability. Solid Propellant Winged Rockets — Object No. The rockets of the http://festival-celle.de/baeder-in-psoriasis-in-einer-reihe.php were assigned for shooting moving air targets from the ground. Therefore, the stabilization and pontrol of the rocket during flight as well as the setting of the fuses into action had to be realized by means of telemechanical instruments through a light beam produced from a search—light illuminating the target.

As a Fodorov A P CBT, this work was of a pure experimental nature and proceeded as follows: The rockets of the type were constructed according to two alternative desi-is in order to solve the assiied task. The body of the rocket acquired a cylindrical form with a streamline nasal part and slightly conical compartment in the tail. A cantilever wing had a lower position. The tail unit consisted of a stablizer, elevators, fins and a rudder.

The chamber of the solid propellant rocket engines, of the type used in modern rocket missiles, was situated in the central part of the body. The nasal section was assigiied for the installation of the telemechanical instruments, while the head part was assigned for the explosives.

The launching of the rocket was envisaged with a special launching-pad, which permitted to visit web page a rough aiming towards the target. The maximum value of the reactive force, kg. The initial weight of the rocket, kg. The weight of the construction without a propellant charge, telemechanical equipment and combat load, kg.

The weight of the rocket with the telemechanical equipment and combat load, kg. It was not intended to use the rocket of the type for gliding, and the operating range was taken equal to km according to the T. The idea concernine the scheme of a rocket which is aerodynamically symmetrical relative to its longitudinal axis, appeared as a result of specific conditions and peculiarities concluded in the fact that the rocket, on persueing a movin, target, had to be very manoeuvrable and deviate quickly from the steady motion trajectory to any direction.

The body, as well as the arrangement of the propellant engine, the compartments of the telemechanical equipment and the combat load. The rudders were situated at the end of each wing and were connected Fodorov A P CBT a special control system. The surface area of the two wings without the fuselage ,m 2 Fodorov A P CBT span-chord. The tests were carried out for various pad lifting angles up to Small models of propellant rcokets were made for carrying out every possible preliminary investigation and experiments, and to test the various schemes of wings and tail units.

The tests of the small rocket models were carried out during the periodparallel with the works on the rocketswhich allowed to get vast experimental results with the least expenses. The maximum flight range of the models was about 2 km at a climbing Fodorov A P CBT of m. When the propellant charge in the engine was burnt out, the rocket continued the flight steadily by inertia, Such flight did not considerably differ from that taking place when the rocket engine was working on.

Fodorov A P CBT was noticed that Fodorov A P CBT a distance of m. It should be specially noted that the symmetrical scheme of the rocket, with wings of a small span-chord ratio, acquired, undoubtedly, a greater stability, and in particular, a Fodorov A P CBT stability, in comparison with the other schemes.

From and orwards, the works were carried out according to the order and tactical-technical Fodorov A P CBT of Fodorov A P CBT Air Military Farces and the Communications Department of the Red. Liquid propellant winged rockets of the types 06, were developed according to their application for launching from the ground to distant targets large objects and areas.

The presumed tactical scheme of the utilization of rockets was as follows A rocket with an engine of the type RD was launched from a special pad railway track. Fodorov A P CBT facilitate the process of lift up an add. At the end of the performance of the engine, the rocket continued to fly to the target by moans of gliding or high speed diving.

The rocketwhose development Fodorov A P CBT initiated inwas similar in its scheme to the other types Fodorov A P CBT rockets, but of a somewhat different tactical nature. This rocket was designed for its launching from the Fodorov A P CBT towards moving air targets mainly as well as ground targets.

The stabilization and control of the rockets flight were accomplished by auto-pilots of special design, developed by the own resources of the itocket Scientific Research Institute. Gyroscopic automatic controls were developed Fodorov A P CBT tested for One, two and three degrees Psoriasis-Behandlung Volksmedizin stability. The auto-pilots were developed by taking into consideration the specific features of their operation in rockets.

For example, the specific features of the objects launched from the ground of the types and were: According to the technical specifications, the automatic control had to permit the transmission of the following orders by radio from the aircraft launching the rocketin order to guide it towards the moving target: Only one experiment was successfully carried Fodorov A P CBT with the radio—control in the autumn offor which a special receiver designed by S.

Army was installed in the rocket ; urin CJ flight an order explosion was transmitted to the rocket from the ground, and as a result, the smoke pot was exploded. This experiment was quite satisfactory. The jet fuel was poured into pipe tanks, which were used Psoriasis-Behandlung in Minsk the same time as wing spars the oxidizer. It was also poured into cylindrical sections and tanks of the fuselage the fuel component.

The rockets of the lypes 06 andwhich were developed within the periodused a fuel mixture composed Fodorov A P CBT liquid oxygen and alcohol. On the other hand, the last objects. The fuel was fed into the engine under the pressure of compressed air supplied from gas cylinders.

The supply of the pneumatic system was similarly automatically realised by compressed air, and the electric current was fed from battaries kept on board. The rocket engine was situated in the tail of the fuelage, and the automatic control device and explosive load were situated in the nasal part.

It should be noted that the work was, in general, of an experimental nature. Therefore, the Fodorov A P CBT were launched without an explosive material, and a special parachute head was fixed instead of the warhead. This head permitted the rocket to land by means of a parachute at a cerLin moment of flight. In some cases, this gave und Husten possibility to preserve a valuable material for the reputed tests.

It also permitted to get and preserve directly during flight the records of certain flight r Fig. The scheme of the rocket The latter possibility acquires an exceptional importance on working out the automatically controlled experimental objects for the first time. The maximum thrust of the rocket engine, in kg. The thrust of the starting. The performance time of the rocket engine at the maximum thrust, in sec. Maximum altitude of climb, in m. Maximum flight range taking gliding into considerationin m.

For the minimum value of the initial flight weight and the corresponding jet fuel reserve. This pad was a narrow-guge railway line extended horizontally Fodorov A P CBT a distance of about rn. A sandy embankment was conetnicted at the end of the railway line. The sequence of 1aunchin was as follows: The liquid propellant engine installed in the rocket was started at first, while the trolley was kept stationary at the begnin of the railway line.

The starting solid propellant chamber was then switched on and the trolley was. After an approximate distance of in. The described method of starting the liquid propellant rockets was examined many times by tens of launchs, with the measurement of all the main lift up characteristics The method was found to achieve reliably any lift up conditions of rockets.

Within the periodvarious instruments such as: However, they were not practically successfully utilized. Large scale preliminary tests were carried Fodorov A P CBT on the rockets.: At first, the assembled parts were tested in the laboratories, and then the assembled rockets were tested on the stands for the measurement of all the necessary characteristics during the operation of the rocket, engine and the control device.

The full scale wind-tunnel tests were carried out on the rocket models and the rockets Fodorov A P CBT. In the proving ground, the rocket models were Fodorov A P CBT by firing from the launching-pad with a solid propellant engine or from an aircraft.

After carrying out the whole cycle of preliminary tests th rockets were admitted to flight. Frequently, such cases were observed just after the start at an altitude of in. Undoubtedly, in the presence of good, powerful and properly adjusted automatic control equipment, data very close to the computed flight range and altitude could be achieved.

At the present time, it is: Concerning the rocket part Fodorov A P CBT, it could be considered that it was operating satisfactorily, taking into consideration the state of the rocket technolor at that time. The rocket theory of motion, precisely formulated and mathematically proved by the Russian scientist Ciolkoveky, gives us the possibility to move without leaning on any thing [ij. The ordinary fireworks rocket is the most pronounced illustra.

The rocket flies because the gas diecharged from it downwards, pushes the rocket upwards. The force moving the rocket, or as we call it the rocket thrust, is often in the best case taken numerically equal to the momentum per second, i.

A sufficient fuel reserve and. Sufficiently great values of thrust could be obtained if great masses. The realization of these two features led to fuels of maximum possible calorific values instead of the use of pyrotechnic compositions of fireworks rockets, i.

Therefore, the modern rocket is very different from the fireworks rocket, which served as a prototype for it. All engineering prospects were used to. This rocket contains aber, Psoriasis Gazette HLS ofte fuel necessary for the flight, the devices for its feeding into the engine, and the engine itself, which consists of mechanisms for the atomization, and.

The latter permits, as it is well-known, to achieve the maximum possible velocities of discharging the combustion products from the rocket.

The entire unit, which is enclosed in a case and which is provided with stabilizers for a stable flight click the following article the atmosphere, and with a parachute for the safd landing, is what we mean at present time by the word.

The rocket is a device Fodorov A P CBT of flight in vacuum. For example, the American professor Goddard carried out: But, as a matter of fact, these experiments were quite imperfect, since no measures were taken to ensure the preservation of vacuum in the space in which the gases were discharged from the: These experiments gave a satisfactory result.

At the present time, this question can be considered sufficiently clear after the theoretical works of a number of talented please click for source workers. The rocket does not require an atmosphere for its flight. Moreover, the rocket engine will operate just the same or much better than in the atmosphere.

The rocket will also fly much better due to the absence of air resistance. Therefore, the rocket is a flying device which is best fitted for high altitude flights. Unlike Fodorov A P CBT the other devices which are, also capable of Fodorov A P CBT flights for example, the etratostata and stratospheric aircraftathe rocket has no theoretical limits of climb altitudes.

I Fodorov A P CBT this coiling increases infinitely with the increase of the fuel reserve and its energy. It is also clear that the rocket will be favourable in the region where the capabilities of the other devices fade away. Therefore, at low altitudes up to about 30 km the rocket will not give the same effect as these devices.

However, altitudes higher than 30 km are also of great interest, at least from the point of view of the investigation of Cosmic rays. Here, the field of Fodorov A P CBT of the rockets begins The rocket is capable, beside itself, to lift a load of the required research instruments and apparatus Before proceeding to the question of the utilization of rockets for the investigation of the http://festival-celle.de/behandlung-von-psoriasis-auf-der-insel-hainan-preis.php, we must Fodorov A P CBT upon the up-to-date achievements in this field.

The experiments on liquid propellant rocketa. The first flight of such rockets was realized in in Germany is]. It should be said that one must be very cautious in respect to press reports about rocket achievements. We have a number of incorrect reports. For example, the news-items. The rocket technology is cluttered up with plenty of various sorts of projects.

The people concerned with the popularization of: The article about "the theory of rockets", Fodorov A P CBT in the journal "V BOj za Tehniku", No. In this article, we read the following: The rocket was fixed to a telegraph-post, and on firing, it dashed awy with a speed of km.

Serious experiments were carried out on solid propellant rockets in the U. Concerning liquid propellant rockets, which permit to achieve much higher altitudes, the work of Berlin rocket-drum should be noted.

Here, the works on rockets utilizing benzene as a fuel component and. However, such workq could not be widely applied due to the lack of the necessary mean g. In ipite of this fact, hundreds of experiments and numerous rocket launch were carried out.

At the present time, in the foreign countries, all the works on rockets are conoeled. In any case, it should be presumed that works on rockets are carried out in all the countries and are proceeding rather auccesful1y. The work Fodorov A P CBT liquid, propellant rockets comprises, firstly, the development of a stable operating engine and.

The produced engine should be installed in the rocket. Rocket schemes may be very diverse, and a special pad is required for launching the rocket. The rocket can then be launched. It should be considered that the main problems related to the engine as well as those related to the rocket are solved. Therefore, it may be appropriate to talk about the utilization of rockets for the investigation of the stratosphere. The characteristic features of the conditions, under which the meteorological and other instruments wi].

Fuels of high calorific values, such as benzene, kerosene and alcohol, are burnt in the rocket engine in an atmosphere of pure oxygen or almost pure oxygen if the nitric compounds of oxygen. Such a combustion reaction is characterized by Fodorov A P CBT extremely high ignition temperature. The order of these temperatures is K. Liquid oxygen is very frequently Fodorov A P CBT, as an oxidizer; its boiling point is 0 C.

Oxygen is stored in the rocket in special tank whose surface temperature is, consequently, very low. Meteorological instruments, installed quite near the rocket engine, should be well protected from the effect of low as well as. The necessity for a thermal insulation is obvious, which can be made sufficiently reliable. The climb of the rocket is dependent on the magnitude of the flight accelerations and speeds. It could be seen from the diagram see fig03 that the acceleration decreases at first due to the increase of the air resistance with the speed; it reaches the minimum at a flight speed equal to the sonic speed and then slightly increases once more.: At the end of the performance of the engine, the acceleration changes.

In general, the magnitude of the maximum speed of rockets is usually found to exist beyond the sonic speed. Landing of the rocket is fulfilled by means of a parachute: Therefore, the instruments should withstand all flight accelerations. It seems that no considerable difficulties are expected here, since the rocket eteorograpb of I. This instrument is lifted by the rocket up to an altitude of w. The high speeds of flight do not permit to et accurate measurements during the upward flight, since the reading of the instruments is always lagging behind the real conditions.

The installation of the instruments inside Fodorov A P CBT case and, consequently, the difficulties associated with their air-blasting, which is necessary for their correct reading, do not also permit the realization of accurate records, A correct vertical flight has been achieved at present time.

Its stabili r is realized by tail stabilizers, wade according to the type used in aircraft construction. Their efficiency will be very 1. Moreover, probable oscillatory motion of the rocket during its flight, as a result of the effect Fodorov A P CBT the different Fodorov A P CBT forces, can lead to conditions at which the vertical flight will be transferred to acurvilinear flight.

The inclined flight decreases the altitude of climb. V V tiq See; I. The corresponding constructional design does not represent any insuperable difficulties. In general, winged rockets cannot fly steadily without automatic control. At the and of the performance of the motor, the rocket flies by inertia, and after the achievement of the maximum altitude it starts to glide.

The solution of Dermatologen Bewertungen problems of the flight of a winged rocket is very difficult, and it is a subsequent stage in the development of ordinary rockets, for which wings are needed for descent.

It is also only a further stage for the accoxuodation of a human being in such a wichtig Psoriasis und süß Yusuke and hia flight beyond the atmosphere.

From the foregoing, a Fodorov A P CBT of Fodorov A P CBT could be developed for the utilization of rockets in the investigation of the stratosphere. As it was noted before, during the climb, the corresponding measurements by means of the meteorographs cannot be carried out Fodorov A P CBT with a sufficient reliability. Consequently, the measurements should be done during the parachute descent of the rocket from a high altitude, since the speed of the latter will be considerable.

Nevertheless, the ,speed will be lower than that of climb. The best air blasting of instruments is obtained when they are located outside the rocket. The parachute, which is ejected by a special device at the highest point of climb, can also pull out the instruments. The rope, by which the parachute is fastened to the rocket, must be made sufficiently long. The instruments should be one whole compact unit and must be separately fastened to the parachute so that the stress of the weight of the rocket at the moment of paraohute deployment during the downward flight could not force any part of the instrument to " operate.

It is Fodorov A P CBT possible, if required, to adjust the moment of the ejection of the parachute so that it coincides with the start ofi the clock mechanism rotating the drums, on which the readings are recorded. The other method is distinguished from the previous one only by the fact that the instruments leave the rocket at the highest point of take-off, and they descend separately by their own parachute.

Winged rockets descending by gliding will not require the outside projection of the instruments. They will cross the stratoapherealznoat horizontally, and it is only necessary to realize a good air circulation through the instruments.

The acceleration during the approach of such a device to the Earth is not dangerous for the instruments. Therefore, it is quite probable that the measurement of pressure, temperature and humidity could be carried out with a sufficient accuracy by Fodorov A P CBT of lifting the instruments by a rocket. The existing meteorographe for the sounding. It klinische Psoriasis Leitlinien be noted that since the records of the instruments should be carried out for their vertical motion with a sufficient speed, then the sensitivity of check this out instruments should be raised.

Besides, it is also necessary to develop new instruments which instantaneously record the ambient conditions, for the determination of the aesigned. In conclusion, we will consider the prospects of modern rocket technology. It can be considered, without Fodorov A P CBT, that an altitude of km.

Altitudes of kilometres and more can be achieved in the far future 1, However, we should not ignore the difficulties standing in the way to these Fodorov A P CBT. Therefore, the weight of the construction should be vexysma Of course, the expenses of one climb to such an altitudg. The diagram given Fodorov A P CBT figure 3 characterizes the flight of such a high-altitude rocket.

The opening of the parachute used for the descent. Therefore, the rocket will appear at first in a state of tree falling. Here, we must note again the necessity Fodorov A P CBT the development of instruments, allowing to carry out the measurements under these conditions. Later on, in the denser layers of the atmospheric, the motion of the rocket will be retarded by the resistance of the air, and. The instruments and the various equipments and mechanisms were usually, as a rule, sent to spheres hardly accessible to human being, and the human being himself followed them immediately.

The work in the direction of building powerful high-altitude rockets is closely related with the utilization of materials d. On the utilization of a very active fuel, the Psoriasis-Behandlung auf Mitglied of the Fodorov A P CBT could be reduced.

A wide-spread idea is that the most active fuel is bydrogen burnt in ogen. The author has drawn the attention without discussing their practical application to the reaction of combined silion and boron with fluorine 9]1 which give even much better results.

However, a much more active fuel is still required. All these problems should be put forward ahead of the scientific institutes of the Academy of Science, for their solution as soon as possible. The question concerning source most profitable rocket, i.

Thus, the Fodorov A P CBT is, at the present time, a new powerful means in the technology of mastering the stratosphere. It permits Fodorov A P CBT attain extremely high altitudes, and it has no rival in this respect.

Its use for liftinC the recording instruments to the stratosphere is essential. In order to ensure this fact, a department of stratospheric rockets should be organized in the proper institute [ii]. One of these problems is the rocket. The rocket is a device which moves by the reactive force obtained as a result of ejection of a certain mass. The thermal energy of the fuel burnt in the rocket is converted to a kinetic energy of combustion products on the existence of a pressure drop between the chamber in: Fodorov A P CBT obtained reactive force is measured by the momentum of discharged combustion products per second.

According to the kind of Fodorov A P CBT fuel, we could distinguish beween two types of rockets, viz.: Thus, the rocket engine read more an engine which can impart a thrust to any body on which it will be installed, and consequently, it can be used for moving any device.

The Field of Application of the Rocket En gines and Rockets The rocket engine, as any other engine, should have a definite field of application, for which it is more favourable than all the other engines.

There exists an extremely wrong opinion stipuating that the rocket engine can give enormous advantages almost in all engineeing spheres and that it should replace all the other less advantageous engines 2]. The appearance of liquid propellant rocket engines is a factor of progress in modern technology, but, in any case, it cannot Fodorov A P CBT any of the existing types of engines.

In the field of its utilization, the rocket will be less perfect and less suitable. The appearance of rocket engines provides new means of movement in the outer space. Moreover, with the increase of the motion speed the efficiency increases," and this increase will continue until the motion speed, becomes equal to the voThciiiy of discharge of the combustion products. Therefore, the rocket engine should, be applied under the conditions when a.

The maximum speeds are obtained in aviation, and. The rocket is a flying device, and its engine Fodorov A P CBT part of this device.

The rocket is a new kind, of flying devices, which is at-the Fodorov A P CBT time mastered by man. However, there are many examples of other uses of the rocket engine, which found their practical application mainly in Germany. The rocket engine had found its first application in Germny for the on-ground.

However, this was not because it was suitable hero and could replace the internal combustion engine, but because the desiiors required to test its motion and to attract. The firms subsidizina these experiments were advertising or their products, and, besides, they were hoping to find, a way out of the economic crisis through a new application of their undeinande. All of these manufacturers hoped for a quick spread of the now poduots in the market, but as the problem of the rocket motion was found to be more difficult than they had presumed.

Fodorov A P CBT, the rocket technology was promising very great possibilities in an another field, namely, in artillery. Therefore, the military departments were Fodorov A P CBT to put this work under their supervision.

The present author believes that the Soviet rocket engineering workers will abandon the wrong views on rocket engines, and as a: The rocket can be used for flight in two ways; either it j. In the second case, the rocket will wove by gliding after; reaching the maximum altitude.

The flight of a rocket is always an unsteady process, since it is accomplished with very high accelerations. Only during the descent, when the winged rocket turns into Creme für Psoriasis Thailand glider, a similarity could be drawn between it and modern source. On the other hand, if we im.

Therefore, the installation of is, rocket engine in an ordinary aircraft is not rational, in spite of the, enormous power developed by it. Comparing winged and wingless rockets, it is difficult at "the present time to state Fodorov A P CBT preference of any of them.

In the near future, we will, most probably, design a rocket which will climb vertically upwards as a wingless rocket, and thendescend downwards by gliding on wings. Such rockets were constructed. Fuel and oxidizer for example, liquid orgen are usually stored in tanks in the rocket to feed the engine.

But among the rocket engines there is the so-called air-rocket engine, in which the atmospheric air is used as an oxidizer. This engine can be fully used for the stratospheric aircraft.

Highly intensive works are; carried out in Italy [6] along this direction. In the USSR, thetheory of such an engine was developed by professor Stekin whose suggestion which is a development of the about the direct and reverse cones [7. Thus, we have Fodorov A P CBT only the theory of the air-rocket engine but also practical suggestions on the scheme of its construction [ Unfortunately, no attention was paid at all to this engine by the Soviet designers.

The problem of this engine is as important as the highaltitude motor for the stratospheric aircraft8 and gas turbine. The http://festival-celle.de/psoriasis-und-tinktur-comarum.php of the air-rooket engine see more the development of the stratospheric transport will be in the future much more considerable.

Further on, talking about the stratospheric rocket, we shall mean by the rocket engine the one which does not utilize atmospheric air, but in which an oxidizer is stored in special tanks for flight.

Before proceeding to the evaluation of the rocket as a flying device for climbing to the stratosphere, we shall discuss briefly the characteristics of its engine. If the rocket engine is compared with the aircraft engine, the same characteristics will be almost obtained: For the rocket engine, the fuel consumption is equal to 1.

But, in this case, it should be remembered that for the calculation of the fuel consumption of the rocket engine the consumption of the oxidizer as well as that of the fuel should be taken into consideration. If the same process is carried out for the aeroengine, i. This is quite clear, because a mass of inert nitrogen passes through the aircraft engine, while in the case of the rocket engine, pure oven is used an an oxidizing Fodorov A P CBT. Flight to the Moon, landing on it and returning back to the F.

In this case, it is encessary to accomplish an additional work during the descent and lift up from the Moon. If the construction of an aircraft with a weight of even two times greater i. Moeover, the rocket, on applying the ignition of the parts of its construction, as suggested by the author, ui]l be much more complicated than any aircraft 1 If we reject the idea of the click here of the materials of construction as a fuel, then the weight of the rocket w: In this case, we should get rid of parts of the construction proportional to.

Practically, the inter planetary flight, under the conditions mentioned at the beginning of this chapter, should he considered impossible. For its realization, it is necessary to search for Fodorov A P CBT more effective means We Fodorov A P CBT come now to the investigation of these possible means. What are our energetic resources at the present time? The combustion of hydrogen in oxygen in considered the most active reaction. Liquid oyger is already now technically assimilated and finds a wide application.

Liquid hydrogen has not come yet click at this page a laboratory stage but it is widely used in many laboratories. However, this is not the most active reaction, and if we go to fluorine we find that its compound with boron gives calories for one kilogram of consumed fuel. Liquid fluorine as investigated by Mussan and Djuar.

The draw back of the reaction of fluorine with boron is that boron is a solid substance and its supply into the combustion chamber will be slightly difficult. The hydrogen impurity is not very unpleasant since its reaction with fluorine is equivalent to that with oxygen, by the amount of evolved heat per one kilogram of combustion products.

The rocket engine has the advantage that it can operate in vacuum. Each engine will operate in vacuum if sufficient quantities of oxidizer and fuel are supplied. The advantage is that the rocket engine can move in vacuum, since it imparts here also a thrust to the rocket, whose magnitude can be cons taut.

No other engine is capable of imparting a translatory motion to the body connected with it in vacuum, and all the more to resist the force of gravity. The theorem of mechanics, on the constancy of the centre of gravity of a system without the action of external forces, should be remembered in order to clarify the above given statement.

Only by getting rid of a part of the mass and changing the momentum, could the remaining part of the bod y be set in motion. Hence, it follows that the Fodorov A P CBT is the climb of the rocket, the more will be the obtained advantages in comparison with the other means of lifting. The Evaluation of the Rocket as a Device for Climbing into the Stratosphere At the present time, the following devices are available for climbing to the stratosphere: The maximum ceiling of the atratostat is ooneidered to be read article equal to 30 km ].

Stratospheric aircraftss which are airorafte achieving altitudes of 14 km. But these are still single individual cases of climb. Normally, the sounding balloons climb up to not more than km. First of all, the rocket can be used for the purposes of inveltigation of the stratosphere, up to an altitude of kin, i.

Here, the rocket should not and cannot replace the above mentioned Fodorov A P CBT of investigation. On the contrary, it should be regarded as a supplementary means, disposed by the present author; please click for source has the advantage of getting the results quickly.

Secondly, for high altitudes the rocket is the main and. The actinometric, acoustic and astronomical methods of investigation of these Fodorov A P CBT are supplementary to the rocket method. In this respect, the controlled Fodorov A P CBT, and in the first place the mechanical device, belong to the future. Therefore, the problem of stratospheric aircraft is the main item in the task of conquering the stratosphere, and, hence, a great attention Fodorov A P CBT be paid to the air—rocket engine as a probable engine for high speed.

The winged rocket also has a future in this respect Let us come back to the evaluation of the rocket as a device for lifting instruments to the stratosphere for its investigation. The conference paid a sufficient attention to the problems of reactive motion. Fodorov A P CBT reports were specially dedicated to different aspects of rocket technology, and when the discussion was directed to the investigation of high atmospheric layers, the rocket attracted the attention of all the persons.

For what purpose is the investigation of these atmospheric layers needed? The academician loffe explained this clearly in his address to the conference on the problem of cosmio rays. Science is interested in altitudes of about km, mainly from the Fodorov A P CBT point of the study of cosmic radiation transmitted from the outer space and not reaching the Earth surface.

The scheme of a special rocket meteorograph, allowing to carry out aerological investigations by means of rockets, was demonstrated in the conference. The role of rockets for the investigation of the stratosphere was clearly mentioned in the resolutions of the All—Union Conference In this respect, the following decision Fodorov A P CBT the study of stratosphere. But investigations at high altitudes are of a particular interest".

The paper written by Lorenc on; "Baketnyj polet v stratosfere" Rocket flight in the stratosphere was published in Germany inin the year book of the WCIL [Wissenechaftliche Gesellschaft fr Luftfahrt]. The following was included, in the resoltuion of the technical section: The conference points out that Fodorov A P CBT to the up to date state of technology the conquest- of altitudes higher than 30 km is znaily determined by the successful development of the reactive motion".

Thus, the stratospheric rocket received the complete recognition of the conference on the study of the stratosphere. The Fodorov A P CBT Weight of the Stratospheric Rocket It is well. This ratio is determined by the first and main theorem of Ciolkovskij, forming the basis of the whole theory of propulsive motion.

During flight in the atmosphere the enerr is spent not only to overcome the gravity, but also to overcome the air-resistance. The value of the air resistance depends upon the shape of the rocket as well as its absolute dimensions. R is the air resistance. Relating the air resistance to the unit of the rocket Fodorov A P CBT following equation will be obtained I, -- the Cs b - a. Since we will compare only similar rockets, and. The choice of a small value of acceleration is expedient, because itis advantageous to fly through the atmosphere, as the calculations indicate, with small speeds, since, in this case, the work spent on overcorning the oroe of the air-resistance will be small.

Using these initial values and assuming a constant field of gravity, the above written differential equation of the vertical motion of rockets Fodorov A P CBT solved by numerical and analytical methods. The results of this solution are represented by the curves showing the relationship between the climb altitude of the rocket and the ratio shown in figure 1. These curves are given for different values YdIscharge velocities. The altitude given here is the total altitude, i. It could be seen that the attainable altitude rises quickly with the increase of the ratio We are interested in the real weight of -the fuel, which we must store in the rocket.

This problem could be solved in a general read more. The final weight of the rocket G Fodorov A P CBTi. The consideration of the or weights of these units show that they are functions of either G fuel G. The final weight Gof the rocket is composed of the-following weights: It should be noted that the problem of feeding the fuel andJ oxidizer by a pump is technically unsolved up till now, and we can eeot Fodorov A P CBT realize only those rockets in which these components are fed into the Fodorov A P CBT chamber under the pressure developed in the ts-nka.

The pressure accumulator is a cylinder of compressed airor nitrogen, existing under a pressure much higher than that required for Fodorov A P CBT. This compressed gas forces the fuel and oxidizer into the combustion chamber. Undoubtedly, a rocket equipped with such amethod of feeding Fodorov A P CBT the least advantageous, but, unfortunately, it is the only rocket we can use at the present time.

The weight of the tanks of the fuel and. Carzring out the calculation for a mixture ofalcohol and oxygen, for the full combustion of the fuel, the specific weigljt of the mixture will be approximately equal to uni1. Therefore, the weight of the tanks in the given rocket will be a function of the weight of its content.

The experience shows that this function is linear, and is precisely given by s Gta. The alloy "elektron" is taken as a material for the tanks, since it is the lightest one. The working pressure in the tanks is assumed to be equal to 20 atm.

Since powerful rocket engines are not yet built anywhere, it will be assumed that for the increase of the power, the number of the engines should be increased.

Then, the weight of the engine will be a linear function of the consumption rate of the fuel. It could be considered that where G is the ra? There- For a rocket acceleration of 20 greater more precisely 3. For a rocket without a hu manbeing- we can permit higher speeds of descent and we can consider that: The weight of the parachute: The weight of the instruments will be considered constant for all the rockets, and equal to 5 kg.

The weight of the case, which includes the caps, frame, stabi- lizers, pipes, etc. Such a weight could be achieved, if the tanks themselves replace. Therefore, for parachutes having the same speed of descent as a h u ma n being, the following equation could be accepted C, 0,1G f. The coefficient in front of the parameter C finalis decreased by a assuming higher speeds of descent. If the rocket does not carry any instrument, i.

The climb altitude, kin; 2- The weight of the rocket, kg. Therefore, travelling freely according to the curve given in figure 1, as many investigators do, is not admitted. Figure 2 shows the curve of the variation of the climb altitude of the rocket with its initial weight and with the discharge velocity. Since the above stated proportionality between weights cannot be fulfilled for small rockets, then the curves will be broken near the origin of the co—ordinates.

For example, we see that the rocket should have an initial. This means that a thrust of kg. It is quite possible to construct an engine for getting such a thrust certain information Fodorov A P CBT indicating that works are carried out in Germany for the development of an engine having a thrust of kg.

A click increase of the initial weight of the rocket is irrational, because, for example, a rocket of kg.

Using the above stated equations, the weight specification of the individual elements of the given rocket for a Fodorov A P CBT 0. However, we must take into consideration that we. The question of the weight raises much more requirements for the designer than in the case of aircraft building industry.

Http://festival-celle.de/elokim-psoriasis.php the case when the relative weight appears eine Tabelle, die kann und nicht an Psoriasis leiden kann be great,: We should ask ourselves the following question: The following methods could be used for this purpose: Let us discuss these two methods separately.

The hrat value is more or less practicable for the; up to date state of rocket technology, while the second value is or the future. We see that with the increase of w athe values of the ratio N. The increase of the value of w leads to the increase of the coefficient of the given engine fr the given fuel, or to theutilization of a fuel of a higher calorific value, i. The increase of the coefficient of an engine is associated with the necessity of the solution of some design problems, such as the improvement of the automnization visit web page Fodorov A P CBT fuel and, consequently, the perfection of the process of combustion and the selection of a rational form of combustion chamber, etc.

If, for example, the following weights are taken for a rocket, then a maximum altitude slightly higher than 20 km will be obtained: The perfection of combustion is possible if the processes taking place in the combustion chamber are well known. The study of these processes is one of the obligatory problems, accompanying the solution of the general problem of the construction of an efficient engine.

The desire to use more effective fuels raises the question of their discovery. We should examine Fodorov A P CBT and metals of high calorific values as fuels, and ozone as well as other substances as http://festival-celle.de/tee-fuer-die-behandlung-von-psoriasis.php agents. Some of these components are sufficiently well studied, and the question is only confined in their wide-scale technical production; other substances http://festival-celle.de/welche-ursachen-psoriasis.php Fodorov A P CBT sufficiently examined and their fu.

The increase of YL is usually accompanied with the increase of temperature in the combustion chamber. Since it is still difficult: It is clear from the list. This can be easily realized if one or both of the components are liq ,uified.

Lctually,for this purpose, it is required to take an excess of liquified gases, but in return we should Fodorov A P CBT on the reduction of the weight of the pressure accumulator at least by a factor of two. This is one of the most important problems of rocket technology, which has not yet been solved or even studied. This problem is difficult because it is necessary to have, beside the pump itself, an engine for its driving.

Also, it is quite difficult to construct such a complicated unit from light weight materials. However, this problem can be simplified in modern engines of indirect reaction, since they have moving parts which can also drive the pumps. What could we gain from the solution of the pump problem? The weight of the pump is a function of the rate of the consumption of fuel and oxidizer.

Let us take the weight of the pump until equal to 2 kg. Taking - 0. Neglecting the weight of the fuel and tanks for the pumpengine, due to their insignificance, the following expression could be approximately obtained in the present case 0j, rn - I Therefore, the pump doubles the weight of the engines, but, from the other side, we exclude the weight of the pressure accumulators.: For a variable avitational field the maximum altitude will be considerably higher.

This rocket, which is composed of a number of individual rockets auf dem Kopf, in each other, gets rid, of the worked out parts during flight.

Now we can talk about the multi—stage rocket as a unit composed of two or three individual rockets, which are put one in the other. Such a multi—stage rocket permits to exceed somewhat the above mentioned limits of climb. The problem of multi—stage rocket is one of the problems of the future and of the present time.

Fodorov A P CBT up all the above discussed points, it is seen that a rock t could be constructed at the present time for vertical flight altitude of 50 km or even to km if volatile liquids are. These data are, undoubtedly, the optimum values. They give the limits of the altitudes that can Fodorov A P CBT practically achieved at the present time. On the other hand, in the future, these altitudes will appear. The increase of the discharge velocities and the utilization of pumps for the supply of fuel make it possible to reach the highest atmospheric layers, i.

The Construction of the Rocket On the basis of the above given data a preliminary sketohfor; the construction of the present rocket could be developed. The modern liquid, propellant rocket is a rather complicated technical device. Figure 3 shows a sketch of the rocket whose weight specification was given above. This is a rocket weighing kg. The engine is located in the -tail part of the rocket and will be discussed later on in more details.

In addition, tanks for liquid oygen and alcohol, as well as a pressure accumulator, are installed in the rocket. The pressure accumulator consists of.

Accordingly, a proper pressure is maintained in th tanks, which causes the fuel and the oxidizer to flow through the http://festival-celle.de/kostenguenstige-sprays-bei-psoriasis.php to the engine. The pipe is represented schematically in figure 3, It should be provided with atop cocks, relief valves, The rocket is provided with a stabilizer in ordr to direct its flight in the atmosphere.

It is also necessary tostipulate the: What are the requirements that should be fulfilled by the instruments so that Fodorov A P CBT can be installed in the given rocket? In addition to the perfect operation of these instruments, the other requirements are dictated by the conditions under which they should be installed in the rocket.

The results of the aerodynamical calculations of the described rocket are given in figure 4. The calculations were carried out by.

We see that the maximum ceiling of the rocket is slightly greater than 45 kin it is precisely equal to The curve of the. At this moment, the rocket will rise to an altitude of 16 km. Accordingly, it is seen that the recording instruments should have a quite small inertia so that Fodorov A P CBT could be able to record the ambient conditions rapidly.

Actually, it is possible to let the instruments operate under the conditions of descent, but, Luiza Hey über Psoriasis this case, we should take into consideration that the rocket will descend at first as a free falling body, even if the parachute is projected at the; maximum point of climb, due to the high rarefaction of the air atthis altitude.

The curve of the accelerations see fig. This value is times greater than the acceleration of gravity, and the instruments should withstand it. It is possible to fulfil these requirements, and also to construct a rocket according to the above given scheme. Let us proceed to the engine of such a rocket. This engine should have a thrust of kg, which necessitates a fuel consumpiori of 3 kg.

It has already been pointed out that it is quite possible to realize the construction of such an engine. The fuel is atomized by a nozzle http://festival-celle.de/flecken-von-psoriasis-preis.php is burnt after being mixed with the oxidizer.

Fodorov A P CBT

Специально для этого, я разработал комплекс тренировок, цель которых, приобрести правильную технику выполнения упражнений на ВСЕ группы мышц. Александр Фёдоров общается с Максимом Сушинским, чемпионом мира по хоккею, звездой НХЛ, click at this page клубов СКА и Авангард.

Интересный разговор двух выдающихся спортсменов о бизнесе, тренировках, мотивации и автомобилях. ДЕЛАЙТЕ ДОБРО, И ДОБРО НЕ ПОКИНЕТ ВАС!!! Александр Фёдоров в очередной раз посетил торжественное мероприятие "Созвездие Героев", посвящённое Международному дню инвалидов.

Александр Фёдоров посетил школу для детей инвалидов "Динамика", Спб. Друзья, ждем всех 19 и 20 ноября в Москве! С 28 по 30 октября в Москве пройдет грандиозное событие! Power Pro Show ! Обязательно приходите на это мероприятие и у вас будет возможность пообщаться с Александром Фёдоровым лично! Многие из вас уже знают, я запустил линейку своего спортивного питания.

Уже скоро вы сможете увидеть эту продукцию в магазинах своего города, а пока я хотел бы поделиться с вами двумя принципиальными моментами. Во-первых — чем я руководствуюсь в подборе ассортимента. Кишинев, в клубе Неоджм пройдет семинар Александра Фёдорова.

В рамках чемпионата Молдовы го мая Александр Фёдоров выступит с гостевым позированием. Не упустите возможность лично пообщаться с Александром! Семинар Александра Фёдорова в Хельсинки собрал большую аудиторию тех, кто действительно интересуется темой профессионального бодибилдинга. Попытавшись сделать ТОП-5 российских про-атлетов мы осознали, что это практически невыполнимая задача.

Наступил последний месяц зимы. И первый день - полноценного подготовительного цикла. Александр Фёдоров дает комментарии по поводу своего выступления на Arnold Classic Europe в Мадриде, а также рассказывает о дальнейшим планах. Александр Фёдоров выбрал 5 вопросов, заданных фанатами в его официальном паблике http: Please click for source фото и видео с автограф-сессии Александра Фёдорова со Fodorov A P CBT фанатами.

Выкладываем 3 части вдохновляющего видео-интервью для "Железного мира". Предлагаем вашему вниманию фотоотчет с семинара Александра Фёдорова в Санкт-Петербурге. Александр Фёдоров поделился со своими фанатами планами на осенний сезон и озвучил соревнования в которых планирует принять участие!

Силовые показатели растут не так, как хотелось бы. Внешний вид тела также практически не изменился. Можете посоветовать что-то из приличной фармакологии для достижения результата. Деньги — не вопрос. Записаться на Fodorov A P CBT можно по тел.: Александр Fodorov A P CBT после возвращения со соревнований в США провел ряд семинаров и открытых тренировок Fodorov A P CBT Пятигорске, Рыбинске и Таллине.

Публикуем видео Fodorov A P CBT с Александром Фёдоровым, снятое после его возвращения с турнира в Orlando и New York Proв котором Александр делится своими впечатлениями после соревнований, а также рассказывает о своих дальнейших планах. Из-за плотного графика Александра, видео снято Fodorov A P CBT дороге, но зато все по-настоящему, без постановки.

Смотрите фото и видео с соревнований, а также интервью с Александром Фёдоровым. Смотрите видеосюжет о том, как Александр Фёдоров помогает Алексею Кузнецову в подготовке к старту на соревнованиях в Санкт-Петербурге. Как устроен профессиональный бодибилдинг 86 ЖЕЛЕЗНЫЙ РЕЙТИНГ. Полное видео с ответами Александра Фёдорова на вопросы подписчиков его оф. Александр Фёдоров продолжает свою подготовку Psoriasis Hilfe für dass die beste весеннему старту, который состоится в США в мае.

В субботу, го февраля в Москве прошел семинар Александра Фёдорова. Мероприятие проводилось при поддержке Alex Fitness в клубе на проспекте Андропова Представляем вашему вниманию подборку фотографий с фотосессии just click for source после Fitness House Grand Prix Смотрите новый выпуск Железного рейтинга, посвященный тренировки Александра Фёдорова.

В свое время после громкого появления Александра Фёдорова на мировой арене бодибилдинга, западные журналисты специально приехали в Санкт-Петербург, чтобы узнать, каким именно образом он тренируется. Очевидно, они никак не могли представить, что Александр тренируется в зале на кладбище. Александр Фёдоров продолжает тренироваться перед своим стартом, который состоится весной click США.

Alexander Fedorov remains a mythic figure. Можно сказать, что то, что я знаю о бодибилдинге и то, за что я люблю этот тяжелый спорт началось с этих старых, черно-белых фото Полную read article фотографий с Grand Prix Fitness House можно посмотреть по ссылке: Друзья, время собирать камни.

Где обсуждение итогов, где прямая речь? Куда он опять спрятался?! Но таких ощущений, как сейчас у меня не Fodorov A P CBT, пожалуй, никогда.

Как будто 1 ноября — мои первые в жизни соревнования. По всем вопросам возможного сотрудничества, участия в мероприятиях, турнирах, организации гостевых позирований и семинаров, участия в маркетинговой активности и т. Биография Блог Медиа Контакты. На своем семинаре Александр Фёдоров объявил о том, что начинает активно готовиться к осеннему старту!

Публикуем видео с ответами Александра Фёдорова на вопросы его фанатов в паблике http:

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